Chapter 13 Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, Spinal Reflexes Flashcards Preview

Bio 223 Anatomy & Physiology 1 > Chapter 13 Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, Spinal Reflexes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 13 Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, Spinal Reflexes Deck (184):
1

What three things can be effectors for both the brain and Spinal Cord?

* Muscles
* Glands
* Adipose tissue

2

At what age does the length of the spinal cord stop growing?

age 4

3

What provides a two-way conduction pathway to and from the brain?

spinal cord

4

How long is the spinal cord?
How wide is the spinal cord?

~18 inches long
~ 1/2 inch wide

5

At which vertebrae does the spinal cord end?

between vertebrae L1-L2

6

What is the name for the tip of the spinal cord?

Conus Medullaris

7

Name the 2 grooves that divide the spinal cord into left and right

Anterior Median Fissure
Posterior Median Sulcus

8

2 areas of the spinal cord are especially thick due to the amount of gray matter in the segments. Name these two enlargments
(hint: obvious second part to names)

*Cervical Enlargement
*Lumbar Enlargement

9

Which two plexus' does the Cervical Enlargement respond to?

* Cervical Plexus
* Brachial Plexus

10

Which two plexus' does the Lumbar Enlargement respond to?

* Lumbar Plexus
* Sacral Plexus

11

Name the thin, conical part of the spinal cord below the lumbar enlargement

Conus Medullaris

12

What is the Filum Terminale made of?

Fibrous Connective Tissue
(an extension of the spinal meninges)

13

The Filum Terminale extends past the Conus Medullaris and anchors the spinal cord to what?

Coccyx

14

What do you call the nerve roots extending past the conus medullaris?

Cauda Equina

15

What makes up the Cauda Equina?

filum terminale and nerve roots extending

16

Do the spinal roots continue to lengthen and grow?

yes
(unlike the spinal cord)

17

Which spinal nerves are named for inferior vertebra while all the other spinal nerves (nerve segments) are named for superior vertebra?

Cervical Nerves

18

Name the Cervical spinal nerves

C1-C8

19

Name the Cervical spinal vertebra

C1-C7

20

How many spinal nerves (spinal cord segments) are found on each side?

31

21

Where does the filum terminale exit before it fuses with the coccyx?

sacral hiatus

22

How many Sacral Foramina are there, and which Sacral Spinal Nerves go through them?

4 Sacral Foramina
Spinal nerves S1-S4

23

Which spinal nerves go through the sacral hiatus?

S5
C01

24

Around which spinal nerve would you find the Cauda Equina?
(end of spinal cord)

L1-L2

25

Name the two branches of spinal nerves.
(hint: roots)

*Dorsal Root
*Ventral Root

26

Which part of the Dorsal Root contains cell bodies of sensory neurons?

Dorsal Root Ganglia

27

The Dorsal and Ventral roots join to form what?

a spinal nerve

28

What do mixed nerves do (carry) ?

carry both Afferent (sensory) and Efferent (motor) fibers

29

Cranially, the Dura Mater fuses with the __________ of occipital bone and is continuous with cranial dura mater, Caudally the Dura Mater tapers to dense cord of collagen fibers which form what?

*periosteum
* filum terminale in coccygeal ligament

30

Name the middle meningeal layer of the spinal cord?

Arachnoid Mater

31

What is the name of the space found between the Arachnoid Mater and the Dura Mater?

Subdural space

32

Name the space found between the Arachnoid Mater and the Pia Mater of the Spine that contains Arachnoid Trabeculae.

Subarachnoid Space

33

Which space would they go into to perform a lumbar puncture or spinal tap to remove CSF?

Subarachnoid space

34

What is the Arachnoid trabeculae composed from?

network of collagen and elastic fibers

35

The spinal meninges are continuous with the cranial meninges.
true or false?

true

36

Name the 2 functions of the spinal meninges.

*Protect spinal cord
* Carry Blood Supply

37

What is Meningitis?

Viral or bacterial infection of the meninges

38

Which space is found in spinal cord but not in the brain?

Epidural Space

39

What space is found in the spine between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal, that contains loose c.t. and adipose tissue?

Epidural space

40

Name the site (space) of Anesthetic injection

Epidural space

41

What is the name for the area where the Pia Mater is thick and extends laterally and fuses with the Arachnoid Mater?
(hint: ligament)

Denticulate ligaments

42

When "roots" are mentioned, what are they referring to?

spinal nerves

43

Is there adipose tissue found in the spinal cord?

yes

44

What does the Denticulate ligament do for the spinal cord?

stabilizes it

45

How many layers make up the cranial Dura Mater?

2 layers

46

How many layers make up the spinal Dura Mater?

only 1 layer

47

Does the spinal nerve (among other things) exit through the Intervertebral Foramen?

yes

48

Paired denticulate ligaments extend from the pia mater to what other meningeal layer?

dura mater

49

The denticulate ligaments stabilize specifically what kind of movement?

side to side

50

What two main places will you find Blood Vessels (when discussing spinal cord)?

*Along surface of spinal Pia Mater
* within subarachnoid space

51

What type of Matter surrounds the central canal of the spinal cord?

Gray Matter

52

What three things can be found in gray matter?

neuron cell bodies, neuroglia, and unmyelinated axons

53

Which of the gray horns contain somatic (SS) and visceral sensory (VS) nuclei?

Posteror Gray Horn

54

Which of the gray horns contain somatic motor (SM) nuclei?

Anterior Gray Horn

55

Which of the gray horns contain visceral motor (VM) nuclei?

Lateral Gray Horn

56

In the sympathetic chain, the sympathetic chain is the "pearl necklace" and the___________ ________ are the" individual pearls"

sympathetic ganglion

57

Which of the two branches of the spinal nerves (roots) contains axons of Sensory neurons?

Dorsal Root

58

Which of the two branches of the spinal nerves (roots) contains axons of motor neurons?

Ventral Root

59

Which of the gray horns is found in the thoracic and upper lumbar segments?

Lateral Gray Horn

60

Sensory nuclei are found in the Dorsal part (posterior). What do Sensory nuclei connect to?

peripheral receptors
(hint: sensory (Afferent), sensory receptors)

61

Motor nuclei are found in the ventral part (anterior). What do Motor Nuclei connect to?

peripheral effectors
(hint: motor (efferent), efferent to effector)

62

The cell bodies of Neurons in the gray matter of the spinal cord are organized into functional groups called nuclei (aka Sensory nuclei and Motor nuclei).
true or false?

true

63

What is another name for tracts (white matter)?

Fasciculi

64

What type of tracts/fasciculi, carry information to the brain?
(white matter)

Ascending tracts

65

What type of tracts/fasciculi, carry motor commands to spinal cord from brain or from within the cord to lower levels?

descending tracts

66

What type of fibers are associated with transverse tracts?

Commissural fibers
(spand from one side of the cord to the other)

67

What is covered by a thick layer of white matter?

gray matter

68

The Spinal Cord is so highly organized that it is possible to predict results of injuries to specific areas.
true or false?

true

69

How many motor neurons are associated with the ANS? and what are they called?

2 motor neurons
pre-ganglionic and post-ganglionic

70

Name the effector for a Somatic Motor Neuron. What does the Somatic Motor Neuron synapse with
(at the motor end plate)

Skeletal Muscle

71

Name the three options of types of effectors that an Autonomic Motor Neuron would have.

Cardiac Muscle
Smooth Muscle
Glands

72

Somatic Afferent associate with sensory receptors from what 3 areas of the body?

* Skin
* Skeletal Muscle
* Joints

73

Visceral afferent associate with sensory receptors from what 3 areas of the body?

* Organs
* Tissue
* Smooth Muscle

74

Every spinal cord segment is connected to a pair of ______ ______.

spinal nerves

75

Every spinal nerve is surrounded by three connective tissue layers that support structures and contain Blood Vessels.
true or false?

true

76

Name the outermost connective tissue layer of a spinal nerve.
(remember, these are just like the layers of muscle tissue)

Epineurium

77

Name the C.T. layer of the spinal nerve that surrounds the fascicle (axon bundle)

Perineurium

78

What is the innermost layer of the spinal nerve that surrounds individual axons?

Endoneurium

79

Where do Ventral Roots and Dorsal Roots unite?

spinal nerve

80

Once a Spinal Nerve branches and forms a pathway to a destination, it then becomes a what?

peripheral nerve
(outside of spinal cord and brain)

81

Are there Gray Rami at each spinal level?

yes

82

Are there White Rami at each spinal level?

no
White Ramus is only T1-L2
(all of the thoracic and first 2 lumbar)

83

Why does the White Ramus appear white?

because there are more myelinated than unmyelinated fibers/axons

84

Which "ramus" contains post-ganglionic fibers Returning from sympathetic ganglion to rejoin spinal nerve? above T1 or below L2

Gray Ramus

85

The Dorsal Ramus innervates (serves/supplies) the deep muscles, skin and structures of which area of the body?

Back

86

Define Innervate?

supply (an organ or body part) with nerves

87

Which is the larger branch, the Dorsal Rami or the Ventral Rami?

Ventral Rami

88

What areas does the Ventral Rami innervate with? (supply nerves to)

muscles
skin
structures of upper and lower limbs of lateral and anterior surfaces of the trunk.
(ventrolateral structures and limbs)

89

Which branch of the spinal nerves re-enters the vertebral cavity through the intervertebral foramen and supplies the vertebrae, vertebral ligaments, blood vessel of the cord and meninges?

Meningeal Branch

90

What are the "communicating branches"?

Rami Communicantes

91

Rami Communicantes contain visceral (sensory and motor) nerve fibers found at the ventral rami of the ________ spinal nerves.

thoracic

92

Which spinal cord "space" contains fat and blood vessels?
(found in spine but not brain)

Epidural Space

93

Which space contains CSF?
(between arachnoid mater and pia mater)

Subarachnoid Space

94

What is the name for a complex interwoven network of nerve fibers?

Nerve Plexus

95

What do you call the interconnecting branches of spinal nerves that are surrounded by the same connective tissue sheaths?

Peripheral Nerves

96

Name the 4 major nerve plexuses.
(hint: there isn't a thoracic plexus)

1. Cervical Plexus
2. Brachial Plexus
3. Lumber Plexus
4. Sacral Plexus

97

What type of "Rami" do the 4 major nerve plexuses consist of.
(hint: all the same)

Ventral Rami

98

What is the area of the spine thats Ventral Ramus does not branch(do not form plexus), and what are these spinal nerves called?

Spinal nerves T2-T12
Intercostal Nerves

99

Can the Ventral Ramus form networks? (branch out, form plexus)

yes

100

The Cervical Plexus consists of ventral rami of which Spinal Nerves ?

C1-C5

101

The Brachial Plexus consists of ventral rami of which Spinal Nerves?

C5-T1

102

The Lumbar Plexus consists of ventral rami of which Spinal nerves?

T12-L4

103

The Sacral Plexus consists of ventral rami of which Spinal nerves?

L4-S4

104

The Cervical plexus innervates the diaphragmatic muscles, what is the name of the specific nerve that controls the (skeletal) muscle of the diaphragm?

Phrenic nerve

105

If you sever your Phrenic nerve, what will happen?

you will die

106

Which plexus innervates the skin and muscles of your head, neck, superior part of your thoracic cavity (shoulders and chest), and diaphram muscle?

Cervical Plexus

107

Which plexus innervates the pectoral girdle and upper limbs (skin and skeletal muscle)?
(hint: C5-T1)

Brachial Plexus

108

List the 4 Groups of the Brachial.
(hint: Really Tired Drink Coffee)

1. Ventral Rami (Roots)
2. Trunks
3. Divisions
4. Cords

109

What's another name for Terminal Branches?

Peripheral Nerves

110

List the 5 major terminal branches of the Brachial Plexus.
(hint: nerves we identified in lab starting near the armpit. Musculoc........)

*Musculocutaneous (nerve) (lateral cord)
*Axillary (nerve) (posterior cord)
*Radial (nerve) (posterior cord)
*Median (nerve) (lateral and medial cords)
*Ulnar (nerve) (medial cord)

111

Name the 3 Peripheral Nerves (terminal branches) of the Brachial Plexus that service the hands

* Radial Nerve
* Median Nerve
* Ulnar Nerve

112

Are the nerves of the brachial plexus that supply the hands mixed? (capable of carrying sensory and motor neurons)

yes

113

Which plexus supplies the anterolateral abdominal wall, external genitalia, and part of the lower limbs?

Lumbar Plexus

114

The Femoral Nerve and the Obturator nerve are both major peripheral nerves of which plexus?

Lumbar Plexus

115

Which plexus supplies the buttocks, perineum, and lower limbs?

Sacral Plexus

116

Name the 2 peripheral nerves associated with the Sacral Plexus, one is the largest nerve in the body and the other plays the key part in urination

* Sciatic Nerve (largest nerve)
* Pudendal Nerve (key to urination)

117

Name the two branches of the sciatic nerve

* Tibial Nerve
* Common Fibular nerve

118

Define Dermatome

The area of the skin supplied by nerves from a single spinal root

119

Each spinal nerve contains sensory neurons that serve a specific, predictable segment of the body.
true or false

true

120

Which section of spinal cord injury would mainly cause loss of bowel and bladder function as well as sexual dysfunction? This part also controls function of lower legs and feet and genital organs

Sacral spinal cord injury

121

Are Thoracic spinal cord injuries common or uncommon?

uncommon because of rib cage protection

122

Which spinal cord injury would cause paralysis or weakness in the legs, also bowel, bladder and sexual dysfunction? (pretty much waist down)

Lumbar spinal cord injury

123

Which type of spinal cord injury can cause quadriplegia, paralysis in both arms and legs? In some cases respiratory issues and on down, issues in bladder, bowels, genitalia

Cervical spinal cord injury

124

What is the Medical term for a regional loss of sensory or motor function due to trauma or compression?

Peripheral Neuropathy

125

Name the virus that attacks neurons in dorsal roots and sensory ganglia of cranial nerves. Connected to chicken pox, lays dormant within neurons of the anterior gray horns and eventually causes skin eruptions following the distribution of the dermatomal innervation

Shingles

126

What do you call a rapid, involuntary, automatic response to stimuli?
(don't overthink)

reflex

127

Which type of neuron far outnumbers the others, sensory neurons, interneurons, or motor neurons?

interneurons

128

What are interneurons, unipolar, bi-polar, or multipolar?

multipolar

129

There can be any number of interneurons that go up and down until you get to the output.
true or false?

true

130

Does a Reflex Arc generally oppose the original stimulus (negative feedback)?

yes

131

A Reflex Arc begins at a ________ and ends at an ________ (example: muscle fiber or gland cell)

* Receptor
* Effector

132

What would be the effector of a Somatic Reflex?

Skeletal Muscle

133

What would be the effector of an Autonomic Reflex?

*Smooth Muscle
*Cardiac Muscle
or
*Gland

134

Name the 5 steps in a Reflex Arc (Reflex Circuit)
(hint: remember a reflex arc starts at receptor ends at effector)

1. Arrival of stimulus, activation of Sensory Receptor (GP)
2. Activation of Sensory Neuron (AP)
3. Integration at CNS (trigger by NT)
4. Activation of Motor Neuron (AP)
5. Response of Peripheral Effector (trigger by NT)

135

What is the Integrating Center doing in a reflex circuit (arc)?

It is one or more regions within the CNS that relay impulses from sensory to motor neurons

136

Is your own personal reaction time and tolerance for pain something that's acquired or is it genetic?

genetic

137

What is an innate reflex?

Genetically determined

138

What is an acquired reflex?

Learned

139

What type of reflexes control skeletal muscle?

Somatic Reflexes

140

What are the four ways they classify a reflex?

* development
* response
* complexity of circuit
* processing site

141

What type of reflex (somatic or visceral (autonomic)) includes superficial and stretch reflexes?

Somatic Reflexes

142

Which type of reflex involves only one synapse and only one segment of the spinal cord?
(one sensory nerve and 1 motor nerve)

Monosynaptic reflex

143

Which type of reflex involves more than one synapse and more than one segment of the spinal cord?

Polysynaptic reflexes

144

Which type of reflex is more common, monosynaptic or polysynaptic?

polysynaptic reflex

145

Which type of reflex (somatic or visceral (autonomic)) control actions of smooth and cardiac muscles, glands, and adipose tissue?

Visceral (autonomic) Reflexes

146

Are Intersegmental reflex arcs simple or complex?
(they are polysynaptic)

the most complex

147

What is the best known Monosynaptic reflex?

stretch reflex

148

Why do Monosynaptic reflexes have the least amount of delay between sensory input and motor output?

because they only synapse once and they're done

149

What are the sensory receptors involved in the stretch reflex called?

muscle spindles

150

Muscle Spindles are composed of small specialized skeletal muscle fibers called what?

intrafusal muscle fibers

151

What is the name for a sensory receptor that receives stimuli from within the body, especially one that responds to position and movement?

proprioceptor

152

Intrafusal muscle fibers are innervated (nerve supply) by two axons, one sensory one _____.

motor

153

Name the muscle fiber that surrounds the muscle spindles.

extrafusal muscle fibers

154

Extrafusal muscle fibers maintain tone and ________ muscle

contract

155

More precise movement= ____ muscle spindles

more

156

Where would you find the sensory region of muscle spindles?

Central region of intrafusal fiber
(center of muscle spindle)

157

Which part of the sensory neurons spiral around each intrafusal fiber of the muscle spindle?

Dendrites

158

The sensory neuron of the muscle spindles axon enters CNS through the ______ root.

dorsal

159

What is the name for the Motor Neuron of the muscle spindle?

gamma motor neuron

160

Somatic Motor neuron is associated with which gray horn?

Anterior

161

Intrafusal and Extrafusal muscle fibers are ________ muscle fibers.

skeletal

162

Since the fibers of the muscle spindles are skeletal muscle fibers, they are associated with _______ Motor Neurons and synapse at the ________ Gray Horn.

Somatic
Anterior

163

Gamma Efferents are important in what type of muscle contractions, voluntary or involuntary?
(remember Gamma motor neurons are associated with skeletal muscle, think back to the divisions of nervous system chart)

voluntary
(Somatic Motor Neuron)

164

Gamma Efferents allow the CNS to adjust sensitivity of muscle spindles.
true or false?

true

165

In order for a Gamma Efferent to complete the reflex arc, it must synapse back onto __________ fiber of the muscle spindle.

intrafusal

166

Which specialized muscle fiber found in muscle spindles, detects the amount and rate of change in length of a muscle?

Intrafusal muscle fibers

167

Everytime you change positions and stretch muscle, your muscle spindles ________ to keep you balanced

contract

168

What is Reciprocal Inhibition (reciprocal innervation)?

contraction of one muscle, and relaxation of it's antagonist

169

What type of reflexes are responsible for maintaining upright posture?

Postural Reflexes
(many stretch reflexes are postural)

170

With Polysynaptic reflexes, Interneurons control more than one ______ group

muscle

171

Polysynaptic reflexes can produce EPSP's(excitatory post-synaptic potentials) or IPSP's(Inhibitory) at CNS motor nuclei.
true or false?

true

172

Name the sensory receptors involved in the tendon reflex

Tendon (Golgi Tendon) Organs

173

Which specific reflex prevents skeletal muscle from developing too much tension and prevents the tearing and breaking of tendons?
(obvious answer)

Tendon Reflex

174

Name the reflex responsible for moving a body part away from a stimulus that exerts pain or pressure
(ex: pulls hand away from hot stove)

Withdrawal (Flexor) Reflexes

175

The Crossed-Extensor Reflex complements the __________ reflex

withdrawl

176

Crossed-Extensor Reflexes occur on the side ________ to the stimulus

opposite

177

What is the name for a reflex that occurs on the same side of the body as the stimulus?

Ipsilateral reflex

178

The Stretch Reflex, Tendon reflex, and withdrawal (flexor) reflex, are all three examples of ___________ reflexes

ipsilateral

179

Name the only reflex discussed that is a contralateral reflex
(occurs on side opposite to stimulus)

Crossed extensor reflex

180

Superficial Reflexes are elicited by cutaneous stimulation.
true or false?

true

181

The Plantar reflex and the Abdominal Reflexes are both examples of ___________ reflexes

superficial
(stroking skin for response)

182

The Plantar reflex and __________reflex are performed the same way except in healthy adults, the plantar reflex makes their toes curl but in infants they call it the _________ reflex because there lack of response is considered normal because their nervous system and corticospinal tract arent fully developed

Babinski's Reflex

183

If an adult has the Plantar reflex test done on them and they do not respond as a normal adult should but actually have the Babinski's reaction, they could possibly have damage to their corticospinal tract or damage to their _______ _____ ______

Primary Motor Cortex

184

What would you call the group of spinal nerves T2-T12, that do not form plexuses?

Intercostal Nerves