Chapter 15 ANS Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15 ANS Deck (166):
1

Does the Autonomic Nervous system operate with or without conscious instruction?

without conscious instruction

2

What type of effectors does the ANS control?

visceral effectors

3

The ANS coordinates 5 different body systems functions, which body systems functions does it control?

1. Cardiovascular
2. Respiratory
3. Digestive
4. Urinary
5. Reproductive

4

What is the name of the Nervous System that is called the "brains of the Gut"?

ENS
Enteric Nervous System

5

Where is the ENS found?

extending most of the length of GI Tract
(also pancreas and gall bladder)

6

You can find 3 types of neurons in the ENS along with ganglia that form Enteric Plexuses. Name the 3 types of neurons found there.

Enteric Sensory Neurons
Enteric Motor Neurons
Enteric Interneurons

7

Name the type of sensory receptor (of the Enteric Sensory neurons) that monitors chemical changes within the GI Tract?

chemoreceptors

8

Name the type of sensory receptor (of the Enteric Sensory neurons) that associates with the stretching of the walls?

mechanoreceptors

9

What 3 things do the Enteric Motor Neurons control in the GI Tract and stomach area?

* contraction of smooth muscle of GI Tract (moves food along)
* secretion of GI tract organs (acid secretion stomach)
* Activity of GI tract endocrine cells

10

Complex visceral reflexes of the ENS are largely initiated, coordinated locally, and function independently of the ____

CNS

11

Which two divisions (discussed in class) can BOTH influence the activity of the ENS?

sympathetic and parasympatheic divisions

12

Name the part of the brain that is the Integrative center for autonomic activity
(part of brain associated with the ANS)

Hypothalamus

13

Name the Visceral Motor Neurons of the ANS found in the brain stem and spinal cord

Preganglionic Neurons

14

What do you call the axons of the Preganglionic (visceral motor) Neurons of the ANS?

Preganglionic Fibers

15

The Preganglionic (visceral motor) Neurons leave the CNS and synapse on what?
(hint: opposite of Pre)

Postganglionic neurons

16

What do you call the axons of postganglionic neurons?

postganglionic Fibers

17

What part of the ANS would contain many postganglionic neurons' cell bodies?
(hint: similar to how the Dorsal root of the spinal nerves had an area that contained the sell bodies of sensory neurons)

Autonomic Ganglia

18

Name the 5 visceral effectors that a Postganglionic Neuron can innervate (supply nerves to)
(hint: the first 3 are visceral effectors we have discussed a lot, the last 2 are not)

* Cardiac muscle
* Smooth muscle
* glands
* visceral Organs
* adipose tissue

19

The ENS is a subsection of which Nervous system, the ANS or SNS?

ANS

20

Name the division of the ANS that consists of a specialized network of nerves and ganglia forming an independent nerve network within the GI Tract

ENS
Enteric Nervous System or Enteric Division

21

Name the two major parts (divisions) of the ANS

* sympathetic division
* parasympathetic division

22

Is the ANS voluntary or involuntary?

involuntary
(exception: centers in hypothalamus and brainstem that regulate ANS reflexes)

23

Does the SNS (Somatic Nervous System) operate under conscious or unconscious control?
(voluntary or involuntary)

conscious control
(voluntary)

24

What does the Somatic Nervous System (SNS) control (innervate)?

skeletal muscle

25

ACh is involved with the SNS innervating skeletal muscle, and it is always inhibitory or excitatory?

excitatory

26

What 2 fiber types are there when dealing with the Sympathetic Division of the ANS?
(one before synapse and one after)

Type B
Type C

27

In the Sympathetic Division of the ANS, is the preganglionic neuron's axon shorter or longer than the postganglionic neuron's axon?

shorter

28

With the sympathetic division of the ANS, neuron 1 can only synapse with neuron 2 at one of two places. Name the two spots it can synapse

* Sympathetic Ganglion
or
* Collateral Ganglion

29

In the Parasympathetic Division of the ANS, is the preganglionic neuron's axon shorter or longer than the postganglionic neuron's axon?

longer

30

What 2 fiber types are there when dealing with the Parasympathetic Division of the ANS?
(one before synapse and one after)

Type B
Type C

31

Which major division of the ANS is most commonly the "stand alone" division?

Sympathetic

32

Which Division is the Thoracolumbar Division?

Sympathetic Division

33

Which Division is the Craniosacral Division?

Parasympathetic Division

34

Which Division is "fight or flight"?

Sympathetic Division

35

Which Division is "rest and digest"?

Parasympathetic Division

36

Which division increases alertness, increases metabolic rate, and increases muscular abilities?

Sympathetic Division

37

Which division reduces metabolic rate and promotes digestion?

Parasympathetic Division

38

Which division increases heart rate and increases force of contraction?

Sympathetic division

39

Which division decreases Heart rate?

Parasympathetic

40

Which division is in control during resting conditions?

Parasympathetic

41

Which division only "kicks in" during exertion, stress, or emergency?

Sympathetic Division

42

Most of the time the sympathetic division and the parasympathetic division work together.
true or false?

true

43

Most ________ organs receive Dual ____________.

visceral
innervation

44

Most of the time the two divisions have opposing effects.
true or false?

true

45

Blood vessels are almost exclusive to which division of the ANS?

Sympathetic Division

46

What is it called when the 2 major divisions work together, with each controlling one stage of the process?

Cooperative Effects

47

Give an example of a part of the body that has Cooperative Effects, the two divisions working together.
(hint: sex)

External Genitalia
* parasymp.= increase blood flow/erection
* sympa.= orgasm/ejaculation

48

If all of our blood vessels were fully dilated at the same time, we wouldn't have enough blood.
true or false?

true

49

Which division works independently innervating the skin, smooth muscle, blood vessels, and glands?

Sympathetic Division

50

Where does the word Thoracolumbar come from, what is it referring to?
(hint: not asking which division, which part of body)

Thoracic and superior Lumbar

51

What is the only exception to the Sympathetic Divisions preganglionic fiber being short?
(what situation is it actually long in?)

Adrenal Medullae
(preganglionic fiber is long)

52

The autonomic visceral preganglionic neurons are associated with which gray horn and are only found between T1-L2?

Lateral gray horn

53

Within the brain, the ANS is regulated by the Integrative center for autonomic activity known as the boss. What is this part called?

hypothalamus

54

Name the 4 functions regulated by the ANS that are considered reflex actions.
(hint, if you breath in too much pepper you will sneeze, that's one)

* coughing
* sneezing
* swallowing
* vomiting

55

What is the long word used when referring to T1-L2?

Thoracolumbar

56

Which type of fibers are lightly myelinated?

Type B

57

Name the 5 visceral effectors that the postganglionic neurons can innervate with

*cardiac muscle
*smooth muscle
*glands
*visceral organs
* adipose tissue

58

If a chemical is released into a synaptic cleft, it is a NT (neurotransmitter), but if a chemical is released into blood, what is it then?

Hormone

59

What is the postganglionic effector when dealing with the Adrenal Medulla and the Chromaffin cell?
(hint: both hormones)

* NE (norepinephrine)
* Epi (epinephrine)

60

Why are NE (norepinephrine) and Epi (epinephrine) hormones and not NT?

because they are released into blood

61

Which is more common, Cholinergic or Adrenergic?

Adrenergic

62

When you hear Cholinergic, what should you immediately think of?

Acetylcholine (ACh)

63

Sympathetic Division .What are the 2 possible ACh receptors (at the synapse between pre and post gang. neurons) called?

* Nicotinic
* Muscarinic

64

During Sympathetic Activity, everything increases or elevates except for one or two areas (these areas have a decrease or reduction in activity, what are they?

Reduced digestive and urinary functions
(including vasoconstriction to these organs)

65

Does sweat production increase with Sympathetic Activity?

yes

66

Is Nicotinic excitatory or inhibitory or can be either?

always excitatory

67

Is Muscarinic excitatory or inhibitory, or can be either?

can be either

68

Name the two Cholinergic receptors
(hint: assoc. with ACh)

* Nicotinic
* Muscarinic

69

Name the 2 Adrenergic Receptors

* alpha
* beta

70

Which NT does a Cholinergic Neuron release?

ACh (Acetylcholine)

71

What NT/hormone(s) does an Adrenergic Neuron release?

NE or Epi

72

With the parasympathetic, is the preganglionic neuron longer or shorter than the postganglionic neuron?

preganglionic= long
post ganglionic= short

73

Energy-reserves activate during which type of Activity, sympathetic or parasympathetic?

sympathetic

74

When energy reserves activate, there is a breakdown of triglycerides, what is this breakdown called?

lipolysis

75

When are sweat glands activated, during sympathetic or parasympathetic activity?

sympathetic

76

Where do the preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic division originate?
(hint: 2 areas)

* brain stem
* sacral segments of spinal cord : craniosacral

77

Where do the preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic division synapse?

in ganglia close to or within target organs

78

Does the parasympathetic division conserve energy or use and release energy?

conserves energy

79

The Parasympathetic division stimulates visceral activity.
true or false?

true

80

vasoconstriction sometimes happens to reduce blood flow to areas of the body that don't need it at the time. Then blood flow can continue to the area of the body that needs it most and the two other areas that must always have it, which areas are those?

Heart
Brain

81

Constriction of the pupils is an effect of which division?

Parasympathetic

82

Secretion of digestive glands is an effect of which division?

Parasympathetic

83

The secretion of hormones that promote the absorption and utilization of nutrients by peripheral cells is an effect of which division?

Parasympathetic

84

An increase in metabolic rate is an effect of which division?

Sympathetic

85

Heightened mental alertness is an effect of which division?

Sympathetic

86

Changes in blood flow and glandular activity associated with sexual arousal is an effect of which division?

Parasympathetic

87

An increase in the activity of the digestive tract and urinary bladder are associated with which division?

Parasympathetic

88

Decrease in Metabolic rate is associated with which division?

Parasympathetic

89

Salivary glands, gastric glands, duodenal glands, intestinal glands, the pancreas (exocrine and endocrine), the liver can all secrete due to which division?

Parasympathetic

90

A reduction in heart rate is due to which division?

Parasympathetic

91

An increase in respiratory rate and respiratory passages dilate due to which division?

Sympathetic

92

The sympathetic division is also known as "fight or flight" or _____________ division

Thoracolumbar

93

The Thoracolumbar division is referring to the Preganglionic neurons located between segments __-__ of spinal cord

T1-L2

94

The sympathetic Division (Thoracolumbar) postganglionic neurons are in which 2 types of ganglia near the vertebral column?

* sympathetic chain ganglia
* Collateral ganglia

95

Where are the cell bodies of the preganglionic neurons of the thoracolumbar (sympathetic) division located?
(hint: spot found only in T1-L2)

Lateral gray horns

96

Name the 3 ganglionic neurons of the sympathetic division
(hint: one is the "exception")

* sympathetic chain ganglia
* Collateral ganglia
* Adrenal Medullae

97

Axons of preganglionic neurons called Thoracolumbar Outflow, enter the _______ roots of segments
(sympathetic division)

Ventral

98

Preganglionic neurons that are myelinated come in through _____ ramus

white
(myelin looks white)

99

White Ramus= in
Gray Ramus= ___

out

100

If something is going to the skin on the front or lateral part of body, which ramus does it leave, dorsal or ventral?

ventral ramus

101

If something is going to muscle in your back, which ramus will it go out, dorsal or ventral?

dorsal ramus

102

Where is there no white ramus (spinal cord)?

above T1 and below L2

103

Sympathetic= dilation
Parasympathetic= constriction
true or false?

true

104

Which NT is released from both the preganglionic neuron in the the sympathetic division and the preganglionic neuron in the parasympathetic division?

ACh

105

All somatic motor neurons release ACh at the neuromuscular junction.
true or false?

true

106

All preganglionic autonomic motor neurons (symp. and parasymp.) release ACh at axon terminals.
true or false

true

107

Postganglionic motor neurons release norepinephrine (sympathetic) or ACh (Parasympathetic, and in rare occasion sympathetic) at synapse with effector organs
true or false?

true

108

Which division has a postganglionic neuron that releases NE?

sympathetic

109

Which division has a postganglionic neuron that releases ACh?

Parasympathetic
(neuron 1 (pre) releases ACh, neuron 2(post) releases ACh)

110

The exception with the Adrenal Medullae falls under which division?

Sympathetic

111

Name the Type C exception

Chromaffin cell

112

When we talk about the Adrenal Medullae, we are talking about a preganglionic neuron that is going where?

to Adrenal Gland

113

In the Sympathetic division, almost all postganglionic neurons release NE or Epi, but there is a small population that release ACh. In the ones that release ACh, what is the name of the receptor found on the effector?

muscarinic

114

When dealing with the SNS, what is the receptor found on skeletal muscle?

nicotinic

115

Name the two Cholinergic receptors associated with the cholinergic NT Acetylcholine

* nicotinic
* muscarinic

116

Name the 2 Adrenergic receptors associated with the Adrenergic hormones release NE or Epi

* alpha
* beta

117

Name the three effectors of Autonomic Motor Neurons (visceral motor)

*Cardiac Muscle
*Smooth Muscle
*Glands

118

Neuroendocrine=__________ ____

Chromaffin Cell

119

With parasympathetic, the synapse occurs at ganglia located where?

close to or on the effector the nerve is supplying

120

Are sympathetic chain ganglia on both sides of the vertebral column?

yes

121

How many cervical sympathetic chain ganglia are there and what are they?

3
* Superior cervical Ganglia
* Middle cervical Ganglia
* Inferior cervical Ganglia

122

Name the 5 sections of sympathetic chain ganglia

* Cervical Sympathetic Chain Ganglia
* Thoracic Sympathetic Chain Ganglia
* Lumbar Sympathetic Chain Ganglia
* Sacral Sympathetic Chain Ganglia
* Coccygeal Sympathetic Ganglion

123

What is different about the Coccygeal Sympathetic Ganglion?

it is fused (only one)

124

Collateral Ganglia contain postganglionic neurons that innervate tissues and organs of what area?

abdominopelvic cavity

125

The Adrenal Medulla is a modified sympathetic ________

ganglion

126

When NE releases from the postganglionic neuron in the sympathetic division, name the two receptors that could be there?

* alpha
* beta

127

What type of visceral organs do the neurons that synapse at collateral ganglion innervate with? The abdominopelvic cavity or the thoracic cavity?

visceral organs of abdominopelvic cavity

128

Which of the 3 synapse options in the sympathetic division secretes NT/hormones into general circulation (bloodstream)?

Adrenal Medullae

129

One preganglionic neuron synapses on many ganglionic neurons.
true or false?

true

130

All Motor neurons go through ventral root.
true or false?

true

131

White Ramus is only found where?

T1-L2

132

Which offshoot is used and what do the cephalic periarterial nerves innervate?
(superior cervical ganglion)

Tear ducts
face
salivary glands

133

The sympathetic nerves use the same offshoot as the cephalic periaterial nerves, the offshoot 1, they innervate which 2 important parts of the body?

Heart and Lungs
(visceral organs in thoracic cavity)

134

What grouping of 5 different nerves is associated with Collateral Ganglia?

splanchnic nerves

135

the splanchnic nerves share offshoot number 1 with what two other nerve types?

* cephalic periarterial nerves
* sympathetic nerves

136

Intercostal nerves (T2-T12) do not branch so they are not what?

not a plexus

137

All the plexuses and the intercostal nerves leave out the _______ Ramus

Ventral Ramus

138

Which division handles the skin?

sympathetic (adrenergic) innervation

139

Postganglionic axond innervating structures in the thoracic cavity (heart and lungs) form which type of nerves?

sympathetic nerves

140

Postganglionic axons innervating structures in the head (tear ducts, skin on face, salivary glands, nasal mucosa, lacrimal glands) form which type of nerves?

Cephalic Periarterial Nerves

141

What type of nerves of the sympathetic division are called the exception?

Splanchnic Nerves

142

Name the 5 Splanchnic nerves

*Greater (thoracic) Splanchnic nerves
*Lesser (thoracic) splanchnic nerves
*Least (thoracic) splanchnic nerves
*Lumbar Splanchnic Nerves
*Sacral Splanchnic Nerves

143

Preganglionic axons innervate structures in abdominopelvic cavity (below the diaphragm, below thoracic cavity) pass the sympathetic ganglion to form what type of Nerves?

Splanchnic Nerves

144

Where do Splanchnic nerves synapse?
(hint: ganglia)

Collateral Ganglia

145

Name the 5 Collateral Ganglia
(hint first is alone but the next 4 can pair with another)

* Celiac Ganglia
* Aorticorenal Ganglia
* Renal Ganglia
* Superior Mesenteric Ganglia
* Inferior Mesenteric Ganglia

146

What do you call the parasympathetic ganglia embedded in wall/organ?

intramural ganglion

147

Neurons that release ACh are known as what?

cholinergic neurons

148

Post ganglionic neurons that release NE or Epi are called what?

Adrenergic neurons

149

Which division is responsible for most innervation to sweat glands of the skin?

sympathetic

150

Alpha 1 excitatory or inhibitory?
vasoconstricts or vasodilates?

excitatory
vasoconstricts

151

Beta 2, does it contract or relax smooth muscle in respiratory? and is it associated with vasoconstriction or vasodilation?

relaxes smooth muscle of respiratory tract
vasodilation
(inhibitory)

152

Collateral Ganglia= sympathetic
________ Ganglia= parasympathetic

terminal

153

sacral splanchnic nerve= sympathetic
______ splanchnic nerve= parasympathetic

pelvic
(hint: s goes with s, p goes with p)

154

In the sympathetic division, sweat glands are one of the rare occasions that the postganglionic neuron releases ACh instead and has a muscarinic receptor.
true or false?

true

155

What is the one exception to the sympathetic sweatgland situation?

in thick skin the postganglionic neuron releases NE and the receptor is alpha 1

156

Name the 4 cranial nerves associated with parasympathetic division

* oculomotor (III)
* Facial (VII)
* Glossopharyngeal (IX)
* Vagus (X)

157

Where are the autonomic nuclei of the parasympathetic division contained?
(hint: parasympathetic=craniosacral)

Brain stem
(midbrain, pons, medulla)

158

Name the 4 terminal ganglia of parasympathetic

* ciliary
* Pterygopalatine
* submandibular
* Otic

159

The Pelvic Splanchnic nerves innervate intramural ganglia in the walls of which 4 areas of the body. It is passing through the hypogastric plexus

* kidneys
* urinary bladder
* large intestine
* genitalia

160

Terminal Ganglia are close to target organ
true or false?

true

161

oculomotor (III) associated with ciliary ganglion
Facial (XII) associated with pterygopalatine& submandibular
glossophayngeal (IX) associates with otic
Vagus associates with __________ ganglia
pelvic nerves S2-S4 associate with intramural ganglia

intramural

162

Oculomotor=ciliary ganglion=

eye

163

the Parasympathetic and sympathetic both innervate all the same parts of body (for separate reasons) except for 2, 2 areas are only mainly innervated by sympathetic division, what are they?

skin, and adrenal gland

164

Autonomic Plexuses involve both sympathetic and parasympathetic and are nerve networks located in what cavities?

thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities

165

Heart receives dual innervation.
true or false?

true

166

Whats another name for parasympathetic tone, named for the cranial nerve that controls (slows) heart rate?

Vagal Tone