Chapter 4 tissue level Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 tissue level Deck (382):
1

What type of tissue allows the body to interact with both it's internal and external environment?

Epithelial tissue

2

Name the 4 Basic types of tissues

1. Epithelial tissue
2. Muscular tissue
3. Connective Tissue
4. Nervous Tissue

3

Name the type of tissue that protects and supports the body and it's organs

Connective tissue

4

What type of tissue is composed of cells specialized for contraction and generation of force. This tissue also generates heat that warms the body.

Muscular tissue

5

Which tissue covers body surfaces, and lines hollow organs, body cavities, and ducts?

Epithelial tissue

6

Name the type of tissue that forms glands.

Epithelial tissue

7

Which type of tissue detects changes in conditions inside and outside of the body and then responds?

Nervous tissue

8

What is the name for the electrical signals that the Nervous tissue sends out in response to changes in condition, that activate muscular contractions and glandular secretions?

nerve action potentials (nerve impulses)

9

Which type of tissue binds organs together, stores energy reserves as fat, and helps provide the body with immunity to disease-causing organisms?

Connective tissue

10

Each of the 4 types of tissues has different cells that vary in shape, structure, function, and distribution.
true or false?

true

11

Which 2 types of tissue are more general in nature and have a wide distribution in the body?

Epithelial tissue
and most types of connective tissue
(except cartilage, bone, and blood)

12

Most cells within a tissue remain anchored to what?

other cells or structures

13

Do many cells or only a few cells move freely through the body?

only a few cells
(example: phagocytes)

14

What is the shape and location of the nucleus in a columnar cell?

oval shaped and near the basal surface

15

What is the shape and location of a cuboidal cells nucleus?

round and centrally located

16

What is the shape of a squamous cell?

very flat

17

Where is the nucleus located in a squamous cell?

centrally located

18

What is another name for Apical surface?

free surface

19

Name the two parts that make up the basement membrane.

Basal Lamina
Reticular Lamina

20

Is the Basal Lamina found on the epithelial side of the membrane or on the connective tissue side?

the epithelial side

21

What type of fibers does the basal lamina contain?

collagen fibers

22

What types of cells are grouped together to make a gland?

cuboidal or columnar cells

23

Glands are classified based on how the product leaves the secretory portion of the gland.
true or false

true

24

What type of glands secretes into ducts?

exocrine glands

25

What type of glands secrete into the blood stream?

endocrine glands

26

What type of epithelial tissue is binucleate and also has the ability to stretch and then relax or recoil?

transitional epithelium

27

Name the epithelial tissue that is found in the Lumen of the urinary bladder.

transitional epithelium

28

There are two types of stratified squamous epithelium, nonkeratinized and keratinized.
true or false?

true

29

Name two main functions of stratified squamous epithelium.

Nonkeratinized tissues provide protection for organs and passageways
Keratinized tissues provide both protection and waterproofing for the skin

30

What type of tissue has basal cells that are cuboidal in shape and then cells on the apical level that have a squamous shape?

stratified squamous epithelium

31

If keratin is present in a stratified squamous epithelium, where would it be found, on the basal surface or the apical surface?

apical surface

32

What are the functions of a nonciliated (no cilia) form of simple columnar epithelium?

secretion
absorption
barriers for protection

33

What are the functions of the ciliated form of simple columnar epithelium?

movement of secretions (respiratory tract)
movement of the ovum (female reproductive tract)

34

What type of tissue has goblet cells that secrete mucus and trap debris?

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium (ciliated form)

35

What type of epithelial tissue is found in the respiratory tract in ciliated form and in the male reproductive system in nonciliated form?

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

36

Name the epithelial tissue that is specialized for diffusion, osmosis, filtration, and secretion and is found in the inner linings of the heart, blood vessels and lymphatic vessels?

simple squamous epithelium

37

Which muscular tissue tapers at the ends?

Smooth Muscle tissue

38

Which two types of muscle tissue have striations?

Cardiac and Skeletal

39

Name the type of muscular tissue that has intercalated discs.

Cardiac Muscle Tissue

40

Which type of muscle tissue is found in the wall of the heart and in a muscular layer called the myocardium?

Cardiac Muscle tissue

41

Skeletal muscle tissue attaches to bones via _______.

tendons

42

Skeletal Muscle contractions generate heat.
true or false?

true

43

In which 2 types of Muscular tissue are muscular contractions involuntary?

Smooth Muscle Tissue &
Cardiac Muscle Tissue

44

How many main types of cell junctions are there?

5

45

____ _________ are the contact points between the plasma membranes of tissue cells.

Cell Junctions

46

Name the 5 most important types of cell junctions.

* tight junctions
* adherens junctions
* desmosomes
* hemidesmosomes
* gap junctions

47

Name the three cell junctions that are grouped together as the Anchoring Junctions.

* Adherens junctions
* hemidesmosomes
* desmosomes

48

Dense plaque is associated with Anchoring junctions.
true or false?

true

49

Which type of junctions minimize paracellular flow?

tight junctions

50

Which junction type is microvilli associated with and why?

Adheren junctions because actin is present

51

What type of filaments is the terminal web primarily composed of?

Actin

52

What is the filamentous structure found at the apical surface of epithelial cells that possess microvilli?

the terminal web

53

Which 2 junctions have transmembrane glycoproteins called cadherins?

Adherens junctions and Desmosomes

54

In epithelial cells, adherens junctions often form extensive zones that encircle the cell like a belt around your waste, what are these zones called?

Adhesion belt

55

What is the name of the transmembrane glycoproteins found in hemidesmosomes?

Integrins

56

Which type of cell junctions anchor cells, not to eachother, but to the basement membrane?

hemidesmosomes

57

What two things does the plaque in adherens junctions attach to?

* membrane proteins
* microfilaments of the cytoskeleton

58

What are the membrane proteins in Gap junctions called?

connexins

59

What do ions and small molecules diffuse through when talking about Gap junctions?

Connexons

60

Which type of cell junction is used for communication?

Gap Junctions

61

Which is the only cell junction not found in epithelial tissue?

Gap Junctions

62

In epithelial tissue, many cells are tightly packed together with little or no extracellular matrix.
true or false?

true

63

In connective tissue, a large amount of extracellular material separates cells that are usually widely scattered.
true or false?

true

64

Does epithelial tissue have any blood vessels?

no

65

Connective tissues have significant networks of blood vessels.
true or false?

true

66

Because epithelial tissue lacks blood vessels and forms surfaces, it is always found immediately adjacent to blood-vessel rich __________ tissue.

Connective tissue

67

The ratio of cells to extracellular matrix is a major difference between epithelial tissue and connective tissue.
true or false?

true

68

Epithelial tissue is avascular.
true or false?

true

69

Epithelial tissue is not covered by another tissue, so it always has a free surface.
true or false?

true

70

What does the lateral surface of an epithelial cell face?

the adjacent cells on either side

71

What 2 tissues is the basement membrane found between?

an epithelial tissue and a connective tissue

72

How many different types of muscle tissue are there?

3

73

Name the 6 different epithelial tissues

* simple squamous epithelium
* stratified squamous epithelium
* simple cuboidal epithelium
* simple columnar epithelium
* pseudostratified columnar epithelium
* transitional epithelium

74

Name the epithelial tissue that is flat and single layered.

simple squamous epithelium

75

What is the extracellular matrix (ECM) ?

the substance between cells

76

Which type of gland secretes mucus, sweat, oils, waxes, milk, saliva, and digestive enzymes into ducts that empty/release the products at the skins surface or into the lumen of a hollow organ?

Exocrine Glands.
(hint: endo goes to blood, exo goes somewhere else)

77

Sebacious glands, sweat glands, ceruminous (wax) glands, mammary glands, salivary glands and the pancreas are all examples of what type of glands?

Exocrine glands

78

Name the type of glands that secrete hormones into the extracellular fluid via diffusion and then passes into the bloodstream?

Endocrine glands
(hint: endo goes to blood)

79

What type of tissue do endocrine and exocrine glands normally develop from?

epithelial tissue

80

Adrenal glands, pituitary gland, and thyroid gland are all examples of what type of glands?

Endocrine glands

81

Name the three types of loose connective tissue.
(spaced out, not condensed)

* Loose (areolar) tissue. (spaced out more than reticular)
* Reticular tissue (bunch of berries)
* Adipose tissue

82

What type of connective tissue is found in the reticular lamina of basement membranes?

Reticular Connective Tissue

83

Which loose connective tissue provided flexibility and support, fills spaces, and holds tissue fluid?

Loose (areolar) Connective tissue

84

Which connective tissue has fibers and cells that form a three-dimensional supportive stroma or framework?

Reticular Connective Tissue

85

Which Connective tissue is found around blood vessels, nerves, glands, and organs,and within the dermis and subcutaneous layers of the skin?

Loose (areolar) Connective Tissue

86

Name the connective tissue that stores fat, provides cushioning, and provides insulation to maintain body temperature?

Adipose Tissue

87

Do we have adipose tissue surrounding our eyeballs, kidneys, heart, and blood vessels?

yes

88

What layer of the skin is adipose tissue found in?

subcutaneous layer

89

Are loose connective tissues rare or common in the body?

common

90

What makes Dense connective tissue more dense than loose connective tissue?

more densely packed fibers

91

Name the three Dense Connective Tissues.

* Dense Regular Connective Tissue
* Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
* Elastic Connective Tissue

92

What type of Dense Connective tissue is called white fibrous tissue because of it's white appearance? It is also made of collagen bundles arranged in parallel rows.

Dense Regular Connective Tissue

93

Where is Dense Regular Connective Tissue found in the body?

* Tendons
* Ligaments
* aponeuroses

94

What type of connective tissue is made up of the same things as Dense Regular Connective tissue but instead of the collagen fibers being arranged in parallel rows, they are all broken up and densely packed into three-dimensional networks?

Dense Irregular Connective Tissue

95

Dense Irregular Connective tissue is found in the dermis of the skin, the walls of digestive organs, the pericardium, heart valves and more.
true or false?

true

96

Dense Irregular Connective tissue and Dense Regular Connective Tissue is made of densely packed Keratin fibers.
True or False, if false what are they made of?

False.
Collagen Fibers

97

Elastic Connective tissue is both strong and flexible. What does it have that makes elasticity possible for it?

elastic fibers that can stretch and recoil

98

Name the connective tissue that is a supportive tissue, composed of cells and a firm matrix that is able to resist distortion.

Cartilage

99

Name the three types of cartilage.

* Hyaline cartilage
* Fibrocartilage
* elastic cartilage

100

Which Cartilage is the strongest and most resilient?

Fibrocartilage

101

Elastic cartilage is similar to Hyaline cartilage except for in addition to collagen, the matrix also contains what?

elastic fibers

102

What is the Dense Irregular Connective tissue that surrounds most cartilage called?

the Perichondrium

103

What two things does the perichondrium supply cartilage with?

it's blood and nerve supply

104

Name the firm, shock-absorbing cartilage that is always associated with dense connective tissue but lacks a perichondrium.

Fibrocartilage

105

Which cartilage is found in the knee joint, pelvis, and vertebrae?

Fibrocartilage

106

Which cartilage is the most abundant cartilage in the body?

Hyaline cartilage

107

Name the cartilage that is found in the ear auricles, auditory tubes, portions of the external ear canal and the larynx

Elastic Cartilage

108

Name the two categories of Bone tissue.

Spongy and Compact Bone

109

Trabeculae, the structural unit of spongy bone, are arranged in an irregular lattice providing space for what?

Red Bone Marrow

110

Which has far more functions, spongy bone or compact bone?

compact bone

111

What is an Osteocyte?

A cell that maintains bony tissue

112

About __% of the bone tissue in the skeleton is compact bone, and about __% of it is spongy bone.

80%, 20%

113

What is an erythrocyte?

Red blood cell

114

define leukocyte

white blood cell

115

_________ play a major role in blood clotting.

Platelets

116

What is the matrix of blood?

A yellow liquid called plasma, it is mostly water but also contains dissolved substances including, sugars proteins gases and ions

117

What type of blood cell transports oxygen to tissue cells?

Erythrocytes (red blood cells)

118

What is found within all blood vessels, arteries, veins, and capillaries?

Blood

119

Tight junctions are the connections between the ______ ________ proteins of neighboring cells.

Plasma Membrane

120

Name the zipper-like transmembrane glycoproteins found in Adherens junctions

cadherins

121

What is the most common junction between skin cells? (reason why dead skin peels off in sheets)

desmosomes

122

What type of junction minimizes paracellular flow?

tight junctions

123

What type of microfilament is associated with Adherens junctions?

Actin

124

What intermediate filament is associated with desmosomes?

keratin

125

Which cell junction attaches cells to the basement membrane?
(specifically the basal lamina)

hemidesmosomes

126

Which Intermediate filament is associated with hemidesmosomes?

keratin

127

Which type of cell junction serves as communication between cells

Gap Junctions

128

Name the channel proteins associated with Gap junctions.

connexins

129

Is plaque associated with Gap junctions?

no

130

What are connexons composed of?

connexins

131

What is Glandular epithelium?

epithelia that makes up the secreting portion of the glands

132

What is a cell called that produces secretions?

Gland Cells

133

Most epithelia are sensitive to stimulation.
true or false?

true

134

What is an epithelium that has sensory cells and nerve functions called?

Neuroepithelium

135

Is epithelial tissue polarized?

yes

136

What is epithelial tissue composed of?

cells bound closely together

137

Where would microvilli or cilia be found, on the basal surface or the apical surface?

apical surface

138

What areas of the body are non-keratinized?

moist areas
(ex: mouth, esophagus, vagina, inside cheek)

139

What do we call water-loss that we are unaware of?

insensible perspiration

140

Why do blisters on our heals not bleed?

the outermost surface of the skin is avascular

141

Which tissue type has the highest rate of cell-division?

epithelia tissue

142

What type of Muscular tissue is multi-nucleate?

Skeletal Muscle tissue

143

Simple epithelium is very fragile so it's found in areas of the body that are protected.
true or false?

true

144

What is the lumen?

the inner/open space of a tubular structure

145

When Simple Columnar Epithelium is Nonciliated, what is normally present?

Microvilli

146

What type of epithelium is predominantly found in the Uterine tubes of the female reproductive system.
(helps move the egg along)

Simple Columnar Epithelium (Ciliated)

147

The top layer of our skin is almost all keratin.
true or false?

true

148

Name the rarest epithelial tissue

Stratified cuboidal Epithelium

149

Where would Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium be found?

the lining of some ducts

150

Exchange of substances between an epithelial tissue and connective tissue occurs by what?

diffusion

151

Epithelial tissues combine with what type of tissue to form special organs for smell, hearing, vision, and touch.

Nervous tissue

152

What two types of cells does nervous tissue consist of?

* neurons
* neuroglia

153

Neurons convert stimuli into electrical signals called what?

nerve action potentials (nerve impulses)

154

What are the three basic parts that most neurons consist of?

* a cell body
* two types of cell processes, dendrites and axons

155

What does the cell body of a neuron contain?

the nucleus and other organelles

156

Name the major receiving or input portion of a neuron.

Dendrites

157

Which part of the neuron is highly branched?

Dendrites

158

Which part of the neuron is a single, thin, cylindrical process that may be very long?

axon

159

What is the output portion of a neuron that is responsible for conducting nerve impulses toward another neuron or to some other tissue?

axon

160

What is a neuron?

a nerve cell

161

Do neuroglia generate or conduct nerve impulses?

No

162

Nerve tissue converts stimuli into nerve impulses ( action potentials )
true or false?

true

163

Nerve impulses can be conducted to other neurons, muscle fibers, and glands.
true or false?

true

164

What part of the nervous system detects taste and smells and detects chemicals such as oxygen and carbon dioxide in body fluids?

Chemoreceptors
(hint: Chemo=chemical)

165

How many different cranial nerves are there?

12

166

Where is the Medulla Oblongata located?

bottom portion of the brain stem continuous with the spinal cord

167

The human nervous system consists of more than __ _______ neurons that vary in size and shape.

10 billion

168

Neurons are more numerous than Neuroglia.
true or false?

false.
Neuroglia are more numerous than Neurons

169

What is the generalized name for the pressure sensitive neurons that monitor blood pressure?

Baroreceptor

170

Name the largest portion of the brain.

Cerebrum

171

What part of the brain coordinates skilled movements and regulates balance?

Cerebellum

172

Which part of the nervous system detects changes in the sensations of touch, pressure, vibration, temperature, and pain?

Sensory Receptors

173

What part of the Neuron receives impulses from other neurons?

Dendrites

174

What type of epithelium is dome shaped and able to stretch and then recoil?

transitional epithelium

175

Are transitional epithelium cells rounded and dome shaped when relaxed and when stretched or either or?

They have their surface dome shape when relaxed but not when stretched

176

Is Glandular epithelium considered a specialized epithelium?

yes

177

Which type of epithelial gland secretes hormones?

Endocrine Glands

178

Which of the two types of epithelial gland, is ductless?

Endocrine Glands

179

When an Endocrine gland secretes hormones, where do the hormones go?

into the blood stream

180

Which type of gland, endocrine or exocrine, could be part of the epithelial surface scattered throughout the lining, and could also be found in separate organs such as the pancreas, thymus, thyroid glands, and pituitary glands?

Endocrine Glands

181

What type of cells produce mucus?

Goblet Cells

182

Which mode of secretion is the most common?

Merocrine Secretion

183

Name the three main modes of secretion.

*Merocrine Secretion
*Apocrine Secretion
*Holocrine Secretion

184

In which mode of secretion does the apical surface break apart/disintegrate?

Apocrine Secretion

185

In Merocrine Secretion, secretory vesicles are discharged at the apical surface of the gland cell by __________.

exocytosis

186

When we talk about modes of secretion, which type of glands are we normally discussing, endocrine or exocrine?

Exocrine Glands

187

Which mode of secretion does the would eccrine relate to and what is it referring to?

Merocrine Secretions, referring to sweat glands (eccrine sweat glands)

188

In which mode of secretion does the entire cell break apart/disintegrate?

Holocrine Secretion

189

Which mode of secretion is produced in the Golgi Apparatus?

Apocrine Secretion

190

In which mode of secretion does continued secretion depend on the replacement of the cells through the mitotic division of underlying stem cells?

Holocrine Secretion
(hint: because the entire cell breaks apart)

191

In which mode of secretion does the entire cell stay in tact?

Merocrine Secretion

192

In which mode of secretion does the gland cell undergo growth and repair due to cytoplasmic components being shed during it's secreting process, before it releases additional secretions?

Apocrine Secretion

193

In which mode of secretion do the cells burst, releasing cytoplasmic contents?

Holocrine Secretion

194

The skin and sebaceous (oil) glands are the perfect example of this mode of secretion. (cell division involved)

Holocrine Secretion

195

The Mammary Gland is the perfect example of which mode of secretion?

Apocrine Secretion

196

Salivary glands, sweat glands, and exocrine glands of the pancreas, are examples given for which mode of secretion?

Merocrine Secretion

197

Goblet cells are found scattered among other epithelial cells.
true or false?

true

198

Name the only unicellular exocrine glands.

Mucous (goblet) cells

199

When the entire cell is a gland like the Mucous (goblet) cell, it is a ___________ _____.

unicellular gland

200

What is the non-secretory part of a gland called?

duct

201

When talking about multi-cellular glands, how many different types of Simple Glands are there?

5

202

Name all three Compound Glands

* Compound Tubular
* Compound Alveolar (Acinar)
* Compound Tubuloalveolar

203

Name all five Simple Glands

* Simple Tubular
* Simple Alveolar
* Simple Branched Tubular
* Simple Branched Alveolar
* Simple Coiled Tubular

204

What type of epithelial tissue makes up the lining of the trachea and sweeps impurities toward the throat?

Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar

205

Name the tissue that is the most abundant, varies widely in appearance and function, and is distributed throughout the entire body.

Connective Tissue

206

What does Ground Substance+ C.T. Fibers+ Specialized Cells= ?

Extracellular Matrix (ECM)

207

Which Tissue is never exposed to the outside environment, is highly vascularized (except cartilage) and contains sensory receptors?

Connective Tissue

208

Name the 3 basic components of connective tissue

1. Specialized Cells
2. Extracellular proteins and glycoproteins
3. Ground Substance

209

What type of ground substance does Hyaline Cartilage have? (pertaining to fluidity)

semifluid/gelatinous

210

What are the different types of Ground Substance that can be found in Connective tissue? (pertaining to fluidity)

fluid- (example: blood)
semifluid, gelatinous- (example: hyaline cartilage)
calcified- (example: bone)

211

Name the three main fibers found in Connective Tissue

* Collagen fibers
* Reticular fibers
* Elastic fibers

212

What two things (one is a transmembrane protein) help anchor the cell to the ECM?

* Integrins (TM Protein)
* Fibronectin

213

Name the two groups/classifications of Connective tissue

* Embryonic Connective Tissue
* Mature Connective Tissue

214

Name the three types of Mature Connective Tissues

1. Connective Tissue Proper
2. Fluid Connective Tissues
3. Supporting Connective Tissues

215

Which of the two Embryonic Connective Tissues, is primarily found in the embryo and fetus?

Mesenchyme

216

Where is Mucous Connective Tissue found?

Umbilical cord of fetus

217

What type of ground substance do Fluid Connective Tissues have?

fluid (example: blood)

218

Loose (Areolar) Connective tissue is a good example of which of the three Mature Connective Tissue types/classifications?

Connective Tissue Proper

219

Is Bone Vascular or Avascular?

Very Vascular (quick to heal)

220

Is Cartilage vascular or Avascular?

avascular (hard to heal)

221

Name the 2 generalized types of connective tissue proper

Loose C.T.
Dense C.T.

222

Name the 2 generalized types of Fluid Connective Tissue

*Blood
*Lymph

223

Name the 2 generalized types of Supportive Connective Tissue

*Cartilage
*Bone

224

What are Mesenchymal Cells?

Connective Tissue Stem Cells

225

Which tissue type is never exposed to the external environment?

Connective tissue
(epithelial covers most of them)

226

Is epithelial tissue 100% cellular?

yes

227

Is Connective tissue 100% cellular?

no

228

What is the most abundant specialized cell type?

fibroblasts

229

What is the second most abundant specialized cell type?

fibrocytes

230

What are adipocytes?

Fat cells

231

When are adipocytes most active?

most active in children

232

What do Mesenchymal cells do?

stem cells that respond to injury or infection

233

Which specialized cell population is the large amoeba-like cells of the immune system?

Macrophages

234

Fixed Macrophages stay in tissue while ____ macrophages migrate.

free macrophages

235

Which type of specialized cell population, stimulates inflammation after injury or infection, and releases histamine and heparin?

Mast Cells

236

Which two specialized cell populations fall under the leukocytes category?

Macrophages and Lymphocytes

237

When monocytes go to deeper tissue they become what?

Macrophages

238

Which group of specialized cells are Phagocytic blood cells that respond to signals from macrophages and mast cells?

Microphages

239

Name the specialized immune cells found in the lymphatic system

Lymphocytes

240

Which is more active a -blast cell or a -cyte cell?

-blast

241

What are reticular fibers made of?

collagen and glycoproteins

242

What type of specialized cell does a Plasma cell develop from?

B lymphocytes

243

Name the most abundant protein in the human body.

Collagen

244

Where are the fibroblast cells found in dense regular connective tissue?

sandwiched between the bundles of parallel collagen fibers

245

What is Elastic tissue primarily composed of?

elastic fibers

246

In Dense Connective tissue, there is not a lot of ground substance but there are a lot of fibers.
true or false?

true

247

Which part of the body connects bone to muscle and is composed of dense regular tissue?

tendons

248

Which type of tissue that is considered a dense regular tissue is composed of elastic fibers and is found in places like the ligaments supporting the penis, the ligaments supporting transitional epithelia and in blood vessel walls?

Elastic Tissue

249

Name the connective tissue found in the dense column of the Connective tissue proper group, that is located in the periostea and perichondria, nerve and muscle sheaths, and in the dermis

Dense Irregular Connective Tissue

250

What type of ground substance does Cartilage have?
(due to the proteoglycans)

gel-like/gelatinous

251

What is the name for a Cartilage cell?

Chondrocyte

252

What are proteoglycans?

branches of carbohydrates (sugar)

253

What are the chondrocytes in cartilage and the osteocytes in bone surrounded by?

a lacunae

254

What keeps cartilage set apart from surrounding tissue?

Perichondrium

255

What is the outer fibrous layer of the Perichondrium made of?

Dense Irregular Connective Tissue

256

Define Interstitial Growth

growth within the cartilage

257

Are GAGs negatively or positively charged?

negative

258

What are Glycosaminoglycans (abbreviated name)

GAGs

259

define vasodilation

dilation of the blood vessels
(radiates heat by widening the blood vessel allowing blood to flow closer to the surface of the skin radiating heat to the environment and cooling the body down)

260

Name the 4 non-invasive diagnostic techniques

1. inspection
2. palpation
3. percussion
4. auscultation

261

Opening a book up and splitting it down the middle is a good visual example of ________ symmetry.

bilateral symmetry

262

Is Histology a branch of Anatomy or Physiology?

Anatomy

263

Is Developmental Biology a branch of Anatomy or Physiology?

Anatomy

264

Is Immunology a branch of Anatomy or Physiology?

Physiology

265

Is Endocrinology a branch of Anatomy or Physiology?

Physiology

266

Which is the overall safest type of medical imaging?

Ultrasound Scanning

267

Which type of common loose connective tissue is found in the basement membrane in the basal lamina

Loose (Areolar) C.T.

268

What do you call a body lying face down?

prone

269

What do you call a body laying face up?

supine

270

What is the general term for any abnormality of structure or function?

disorder

271

What is the word for an illness with a definite set of signs and symptoms?

disease

272

What is found on the ends of a bone?

Hyaline Cartilage
(Articular Cartilage)

273

Most of the time (not always), our bones start out as _______ _________.

Hyaline Cartilage

274

When a chondrocyte is enclosed in a lacuna, what surrounds the lacuna?

Cartilage (surrounded by Perichondrium)

275

When an osteocyte is enclosed in a lacuna, what surrounds the lacuna?

Bone (surrounded by Periosteum)

276

Where is 99% of our calcium stored?

in bones

277

Define Appositional growth?

growth at the surface

278

Which type of bone growth allows the bones to get longer?

interstitial growth

279

Which type of bone growth stops at around age 18 for girls and 21 for guys?

interstitial

280

Which type of bone growth allows the bones to thicken for support when someone builds muscle mass or gains a lot of weight?

Appositional growth

281

Do both Cartilage and bone experience interstitial growth and appositional growth?

yes

282

Which type of growth happens mostly during childhood/adolescence? Interstitial growth or Appositional growth?

Interstitial growth

283

Name the specific type of cartilage that makes up the outer ring of the intervertebral discs.
(absorb shock, extremely durable and tough)

fibrocartilage

284

In which type of cartilage can you actually see the fibers under a microscope?

fibrocartilage

285

Are there blood vessels found in bone?

yes

286

What is the outer fibrous layer of the Periosteum composed of?

dense irregular c.t.

287

The Periosteum (covering bone) and the Perichondrium (covering cartilage, are both composed of two layers, an outer fibrous layer and an inner ________ layer.

cellular

288

What is the function of the inner cellular layer of the Perichondrium and Periosteum ?

growth and maintenance

289

What is the primary fiber found in Hyaline Cartilage?

Collagen

290

Which cartilage type is the most resilient and flexible?

Elastic Cartilage

291

Which type of muscle tissue is multi-nucleate?

skeletal muscle tissue

292

Which type of muscle tissue is branched and has 1 nucleus for every cell, and has intercalated discs?

Cardiac Muscle Tissue

293

Which type of muscle tissue is the only one that can be voluntarily controlled?

skeletal muscle tissue

294

Which type of muscle tissue is responsible for moving food, urine, and reproductive tract secretions?

smooth muscle tissue

295

Why does oxygen need to be transported by erythrocytes (red blood cells)?

because oxygen is nonpolar.

296

Name the 3 major formed elements of blood

* erythrocytes (red blood cells)
* leukocytes (white blood cells)
* platelets (cell fragments)

297

Which type of blood cells help defend the body from infection and disease?

leukocytes

298

Name the specific type of leukocyte that promotes inflammation much like the mast cells in other connective tissue

Basophils

299

Name the three types of phagocytes found under the Leukocytes section

*Monocytes
*Eosinophils
*Neutrophils

300

Name the blood element that are membrane-enclosed packets of cytoplasm that function in blood clotting.

Platelets

301

Neuroglia helps keep neurons alive.
true or false?

true

302

What is another name for the cell body of a neuron?

soma

303

Which communicates via action potentials, neurons or neuroglia?

neurons

304

Which part of a neuron conducts information to other cells?

axons

305

Which type of tissue membrane lines passageways that have external connections (ex: digestive, respiratory, urinary, reproductive tracts)

Mucous Membranes (Mucosae)

306

Name the type of tissue membrane that lines cavities not open to the outside, are thin but strong, and have a parietal portion and a visceral portion.

Serous Membrane (Serosa)

307

How many types of tissue membranes are there?

4

308

Name the type of tissue membrane that lines articulating joint cavities, produces synovial fluids, and protects the ends of bones.

Synovial Membranes

309

Name the type of tissue membrane that is the skin, surface of the body, thick, waterproof, and dry

Cutaneous Membrane
(hint: cuticle of nail is made of skin cells)

310

Serous Membranes line the Ventral Body cavities, name them.
(hint: 3 p's)

* peritoneal
* pleural
* pericardial

311

What is synovial fluid?

a lubricant for our joints

312

What is the medical name for a region in an organ or tissue that has suffered damage from an injury or disease (wound, ulcer, abscess or tumor)?

Lesion

313

Give the medical term for a cancer arising in the epithelial tissue of the skin or of the lining of the internal organs.

Carcinoma

314

What is the medical name for a cancer arising in connective or other nonepithelial tissue?

Sarcoma

315

define atrophy?

a decrease in the size of cells, which causes a decrease in the size of the affected tissue or organ

316

define hypertrophy

an increase in the size of tissue because it's cells enlarge without undergoing cell division

317

Give the medical term for a replacement of a diseased or injured tissue or organ with cells or tissues from an animal

Xenotransplantation

318

Name the most abundant sugar in the body

Glucose

319

A neuron has a cell body, one to multiple dendrites and a single axon.
true or false?

true

320

_____ nerve output causes muscle contractions or glandular secretions in response to environmental changes that effect homeostasis

Motor

321

What is included in the Viscera?

Organs inside the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities

322

What is the Peritoneum?

the serous membrane of the abdominal cavity

323

If an organ is found posterior to the peritoneum, what would we call it?

retroperitoneal

324

What attaches bone to muscle and is composed of Dense Regular C.T?

tendon

325

What attaches bone to bone?

ligament

326

When Chondroblasts start dividing within a bone, what kind of growth is this?

interstitial growth

327

What is the primary fiber that makes up cartilage?

collagen

328

What type of bone growth is at the surface and can continue forever?

appositional growth

329

Define Mesothelium

membrane composed of simple squamous cells that forms the lining of several body cavities; pleura, peritoneum, pericardium

330

Where does the mucous membrane anchor to?

Lamina propria

331

Name the three main fibers found in C.T.

* Collagen
* Reticular
* Elastic

332

Which parts of the body does endothelium line?

lining of the blood vessels, heart, and lymphatic vessels

333

Which type of epithelium lines the stomach, the small intestine, large intestine, and the gallbladder?

Simple Columnar epithelium

334

What are the membranes called that surround the dorsal cavity (brain and spinal cord)?

Meninges

335

Which of our organs is both endocrine and exocrine?

pancreas (excretes enzymes to break down food)
(secretes hormone insulin)

336

Is Cartilage proteoglycan rich?

yes

337

Name the two cell junctions that Cardiac Muscle tissue has that the other muscle tissues don't have.

Gap Junctions and Desmosomes

338

Which muscle tissue is described as cylindically striated?

Skeletal Muscle Tissue

339

Why do red blood cells (erythrocytes) appear to be pinched in?

because they lose their nucleus by the time they are a mature cell

340

Why does Oxygen (O2) need to be transported by erythrocytes?

it is non-polar

341

Fluid moves from the plasma through the tissue as interstitial fluid and then into the Lymphatic system as what?

lymph

342

What does the Mucous Membrane (Mucosae) anchor to?

Lamina Propria
(areolar tissue)

343

Which exact part of Cardiac muscle tissue has gap junctions and desmosomes?

intercalated discs

344

What kind of C.T. is the perichondrium composed of?

Dense Irregular C. T.

345

What is the connective tissue layer of the mucous membrane called?

Lamina Propria

346

What is the functioning part (cells) of the tissue in an organ called?

parenchyma

347

define stroma

supporting connective tissue

348

Skeletal Muscle tissue contains stem cells called what?

satellite cells

349

What 2 things does a stroma have to consist of?

*Connective tissue
*Blood Vessels

350

Which of the 4 basic tissue types has the poorest capacity for renewal of lost/damaged cells?

Nervous Tissue

351

Although there are some stem cells (very little) in the brain, they normally do not undergo mitosis to replace damaged neurons.
true or false?

true

352

What does the restoration of injured/damaged tissue and organs, depend entirely upon?

whether parenchymal cells are active in the repair process.

353

define fibrosis

the thickening and scarring of connective tissue

354

define granulation tissue

new connective tissue that forms across a wound or surgical incision

355

What does newly formed granulation tissue secrete?

a fluid that kills bacteria

356

What 3 factors effect tissue repair?

1. Nutrition
2. Blood Circulation
3. Age

357

define Diagnosis

identification of an illness by examination of the symptoms

358

define disease

a disorder of structure or function, especially one that produces specific signs or symptoms

359

sign vs. symptom

sign is something you can measure or see (objective) example fever
a symptom (subjective) example fatigue

360

define Chronic

persisting for a long time, constantly recurring

361

define Acute

a disease with rapid onset and/or short course

362

define Etiology

the study of the cause of disease

363

define Idiopathic

a disease with an unknown cause

364

define Epidemiology

branch of medicine dealing with the incidence and possible control of diseases

365

define Pharmacology

the science that deals with the origin, nature, chemistry, effects and usage of drugs

366

define Prognosis

the likely course of a disease or ailment

367

define Pathology

study of disease

368

define Autopsy

postmortem exam to discover cause of death or extent of disease

369

define Oncologist

A doctor that specializes in treating people with cancer

370

define Metastasis

the development of secondary malignant growths at a distance from a primary site of cancer

371

define parenchymal cells

any cell that is a functional element of an organ

372

define carcinogen

a substance capable of causing cancer in living tissue

373

define autoimmune disease

an illness that occurs when the body tissues are attacked by it's own immune system

374

define atrophy

The wasting away or decrease in size of an organ or tissue in the body

375

define carcinomas

a cancer arising in the epithelial of the skin or of the lining of the internal organs

376

define necrosis

death of living tissue

377

define hypertrophy

the enlargement of an organ or tissue from the increase in size of it's cells

378

define mesenchymal cells

loosely organized specialized cells, able to develop into different tissues

379

define malignant

of a disease, or cancerous

380

define sarcoma

a malignant tumor of connective or nonepithelial tissue

381

define pus

a thick yellowish or greenish opaque liquid produced in infected tissue, consisting of dead white blood cells and bacteria with tissue debris and serum

382

define wound dehiscence

a surgical complication where a wound ruptures along a surgical suture