Flashcards in Chapter 6 Bones Deck (241):
What is the production of blood cells and platelets that occurs in the red bone marrow called?
hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis
Is Leverage one of the 5 primary functions of bone?
What percentage of calcium is stored in bones?
What mineral is needed for your neurons to communicate, your heart function, and muscle contraction?
What is the name for the body or the shaft of a long bone?
What is the name for the ends of a long bone?
What do we call the part of a long bone that is found between the diaphysis and the epiphysis?
What does bones articulating mean?
bones coming together
What has to exist for a long bone to continue growing and lengthening?
epiphyseal (growth) plate
What is the most inner part of a long bone called?
What type of bone marrow is not active?
yellow bone marrow
What is the core of the epiphysis composed of?
Where are lipids(adipose tissue) stored in a long bone?
yellow bone marrow
Where is yellow bone marrow found in a long bone?
the medullary cavity
Where is the red bone marrow found in a long bone?
What is the name for the outer covering of the bone?
What is the name for the Inner covering of bone?
Does the Articular Cartilage (hyaline) found at the surface ends of long bone have a periosteum covering?
What is the epiphyseal plate (growth plate) made of?
When the epiphyseal (growth) plate becomes the epiphyseal line, what is it now composed of?
What do the words Cortical and Compact both mean?
Dense (all refer to dense bone)
Spongy bone is always covered by a layer of dense/compact bone.
true or false?
What cell junction allows the plasma membrane of osteocytes to come together?
What lines the medullary cavity?
What are the two types of epiphysis?
proximal and distal
Which part of the Matrix of Bone is the Collagen component?
Name the major mineral in the inorganic matrix of bone.
Which Matrix of Bone gives bone flexibility?
Which part of the Matrix of Bone will the sun destroy?
In which Matrix of Bone are the cells actively secreting collagen?
Calcium salts deposit over the collagen and into the collagen of bone.
true or false?
What is the main inorganic ingredient of normal bone and teeth mentioned in class?
Osteoblasts produce done by secreting collagen and pulling Calcium salts from where?
When the plasma membrane of osteocytes come together through gap junctions, a small channel or canal is formed between the lacunae or ossified bones. What is this called?
Where do the canaliculi feed into?
the central canal of bone
Are there blood vessels in the central canal?
What is the central canal lined with?
Are blood vessels found in the medullary cavity?
What is the name for the cylindrical structure of compact bone?
What is another name for Osteon?
What are the perforating canals lined with?
For O2 to increase, there must be an increase in _____ ______.
Do osteocytes and chondrocytes come from the same Mesenchyme (stem cell)?
What dictates whether a stem cell (Mesenchyme) will differentiate into an bone cell or a cartilage cell?
oxygen and blood
(if O2 increases, blood supply increases=osteoprogenitor)
(if O2 decreases, blood supply decreases=chondroprogenitor)
What are other names for Trabecular bone?
Cancellous bone or Spongy Bone
When ossification centers make contact with other ossification centers, they form the network that we see with what type of bone?
Spongy bone (trabecular bone)
What is calcitriol?
Active vitamin D
What is the outer layer of the periosteum composed of?
Dense Fibrous C.T.
What is the inner layer of the periosteum composed of?
inner cellular layer
The parietal Bone of the cranium is a good example of what type of bone?
If the outer part of flat bone is the compact bone referred to as the Cortex, what would you call you inner spongy bone?
Bone is the combination of Organic Matrix and Inorganic Matrix.
true or false?
Besides Calcium, what other minerals are found in the Inorganic Matrix of Bone?
Bone is dynamic living tissue, what does this mean?
Bone regenerates itself
What type of bone cells are mature bone cells that are amitotic and trapped within a lacuna, maintaining the bone matrix?
Name the stem cell whose divisions produce osteoblasts.
(only bone cell that can divide)
Name the immature bone cell that secretes organic components of matrix.
Once Osteoblasts are done secreting, they become __________.
What type of bone cells destroy and break down bone with enzymes like collagenase?
Do Osteoclasts secrete acids and digestive enzymes to break down bone and release stored minerals into blood?
Are Osteoclasts large cells or small cells?
large with 50+ nuclei
Why are osteoclasts multinucleate?
because they were once multiple single cells that came together
(like skeletal muscle)
What is Osteolysis or Bone Resorption?
destroying or eroding bone
The acids that are secreted by osteoclasts break down which part of the bone?
the Inorganic Matrix
The collagenase and other enzymes secreted by the osteoclasts, break down which part of the bone?
the organic matrix
An osteoprogenitor cell develops into what type of cell?
The osteoclasts derived from stemcells that produce what?
macrophages. this is why osteoclasts are from the white blood cell lineage
What is the production of new bone called?
What are the concentric layers of lamellae always surrounding or in conjunction with?
Name the 3 types of lamellae
* Circumferential Lamellae
* Interstitial Lamellae
Which lamellae forms the osteon?
Which lamellae is found in between the osteon in compact bone?
Which lamellae is found around the outside binding osteons together, and found on both inner and outer bone surfaces and covered by the periosteum and the endosteum
What are the fibers that make up the lamella of bone structure?
The periosteum of compact bone has an outer fibrous layer and an inner cellular layer. What is another name for the inner layer?
inner osteogenic layer
Which way does that perforating canal run in conjunction with the central canal?
perpendicular to the central canal.
perforating canal= horizontal
What secures the periosteum to underlying bone?
Perforating (Sharpey's) fibers
What type of bone is trabeculae part of?
spongy or cancellous bone
What type of Connective tissue is the outer layer of the periosteum made of?
dense irregular c.t.
The periosteum covers all bones except for parts enclosed in joint capsules and _________ ________
Sharpey's fibers are made of thick bundles of what?
What type of bone cell is trapped inside of the lacuna?
Which 3 bone cell types are found in the osteogenic layer (cellular layer)?
Do the Sharpey's fiber's connect with the collagen fibers in the bone?
Is the Endosteum internal membrane completely cellular?
Name the 4 bone cells found in the endosteum
*endosteal cells (undifferentiated bone cells)
Endosteum is found lining the inner surface of bone canals, lining the medullary (marrow) cavity, and covers the _________ of spongy bone
The endosteum is an incomplete cellular layer, what do they mean by that?
there is no outer fibrous layer
When does the Nutrient artery of mature long bone branch?
once it enters the diaphysis
Does the nutrient artery penetrate the hyaline cartilage found at the end of the long bone?
no, the hyaline cartilage gets it's nutrients through diffusion
Name the 4 arteries responsible for the blood supply of Mature long bone.
1. Nutrient Artery
2. Metaphyseal Arteries
3. Periosteal Arteries
4. Epiphyseal Arteries
What type of bone is not a weight baring bone, has no osteon, and doesn't have a central canal?
Is the trabeculae found in spongy bone well organized or running every which way?
running every which way
Do Trabeculae of spongy bone have blood vessels?
no, the matrix of spongy bone is avascular
What are the spaces found between trabeculae of spongy bone filled with?
Red Bone Marrow
Why is yellow bone marrow yellow?
because it stores fat
What type of bone is the majority of the cranium composed of?
What is a name for blood cell production in red bone marrow?
(there are two)
List the 2 major forms of Ossification
* Intramembranous Ossification
* Endochondral Ossification
Which type of ossification occurs for the majority of the body?
What type of ossification occurs in the flat bones of the cranium (skull bones), mandible, clavicle ?
Which type of ossification is the simpler of the two?
What does Endocondral mean?
transition from one C.T. to bone
mineralization of bone
What do we call the area that the mesenchyme cells cluster together and differentiate in during ossification?
The ossification center is the part that's hardening and becoming bone.
true or false?
What tissue doe the intramembranous ossification process always start with?
Dense fibrous C. T.
What tissue does the endochondral ossification process always begin with?
What type of specialized cells produce the perichondrium?
Endochondral Oss. takes Hyaline cartilage and makes it bone.
true or false?
What is appositional growth?
growth at the surface
The epiphyseal plate is always hyaline cartilage, and the epiphyseal line is always ____.
During ossification of hyaline cartilage, the chondrocytes enlarge within the calcifying matrix and die, the cartilage then __________.
What are the "beams" on the sides of the medullary cavity made of?
What cell secretes bone?
Where do the secondary ossification centers form in long bones?
Does the periosteum cover the articular cartilage found at the ends of long bone?
As long as chondrocytes are dividing, the epiphyseal (growth) plate will remain.
true or false?
List the 4 zones of bone growth in the epiphyseal (growth) plate.
1. resting zone (closest to epiphysis)
2. proliferating zone (dividing, growing)
3. hypertrophic cartilage (degenerating zone)
4. calcified cartilage (Ossification zone)
What do they mean by hypertrophic cartilage?
the chondrocytes enlarge and then die off
In which direction are the older chondrocytes pushed during bone growth and cell division?
from the epiphysis toward the medullary cavity
Once the periosteum closes surrounding a periosteal blood vessel, it becomes the _________ and loses its outer fibrous layer
What is the normal range of Blood Calcium?
8.5 mg/dl - 10.8 mg/dl
When are you considered Hypocalcemic (Hypocalcemia)?
when your blood calcium level is below 8.5 mg/dl
When would someone be considered Hypercalcemic (Hypercalcemia)?
When their blood calcium level is above 10.8 mg/dl
What does BMD mean?
Bone Mineral Density
Define Hypocalcemic tetany.
Does calcium play a role in blood clotting, nerve impulse transmission, and muscle contraction?
yes, and of course bone health
Name the 2 hormones responsible for regulating calcium in the body
PTH (parathyroid hormone)
Which hormone is stimulated by hypocalcemia and is produced by the parathyroid gland?
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
Calcitonin is secreted by C cells in the thyroid gland, what stimulates it's production?
hypercalcemia (high calcium ion levels in plasma)
When the calcium ion levels in the plasma are low (below 8.5 mg/dl), negative feedback kicks. Osteoclasts break down bone to release _______ ____ into the blood.
Can calcium be excreted through fecal matter and through the urine?
yes. small intestine excretes calcium into fecal matter and the kidneys lose calcium in the urine
When do you get kidney stones, with too much or too little calcium?
too much calcium
Forces coming from which direction can fracture a long bone?
An osteon is compact bone all running in the same direction (organized).
true or false?
Does bone remodeling stop at puberty?
No, bone remodeling occurs throughout our entire life
Adipose cells are found in yellow bone marrow, what do these adipose cells store that are an energy reserve?
The “soft spots” that help the fetal skull pass through the birth canal, later harden as they undergo which type of ossification?
What do the chondrocytes found in Zone 1 (zone of resting cartilage) do if they aren't functioning in bone growth?
they anchor the epiphyseal plate to the epiphysis
What is the word used for the addition of minerals and collagen fibers to bone by osteoblasts?
In order for a mesenchyme cell (osteochondroprogenitor) to differentiate into an osteoprogenitor, oxygen levels and blood supply must increase or decrease?
increase oxygen (O2)
For a mesenchyme cell (osteochondroprogenitor) to differentiate into a chondroprogenitor, oxygen levels/blood supply must increase or decrease?
decrease oxygen (O2)
What type of ossification does the hyoid undergo?
Which is the more common type of ossification?
When the blood vessels in a broken bone tear, hemorrage then clot, this is the 1st of 4 steps in the fracture repair process and is called a ________ ________.
Name the 4 steps in the Fracture repair process.
1. Fracture Hematoma
2. Fibrocartilaginous callus-(temporary fix)
3. Bony Callus
There are 4 General classifications of fractures, list them
1. Position of bone ends
2. Completeness of break
3. Orientation of fracture relative to long axis of bone
4. Penetration of skin
What are we trying to decide when checking the position of bone ends after a fracture?
Non-displaced or displaced
What are we trying to decide when checking the orientation of a fracture relative to the long axis of the bone?
linear or transverse
When deciding on the penetration of the skin in a fracture (#4) What does simple mean and what does compound mean?
Why is an Open (compound) fracture considered serious?
bone has penetrated skin
Name the fracture where the bone is crushed or broken into pieces at the site of impact.
Which type of fracture is nondisplaced and is common in children whose bones are not fully ossified?
What type of fracture occurs when the two bones forcefully collide into eachother?
What bone does a Pott fracture affect?
Which bone does a Colles fracture affect?
What fraction of bone mass can be lost within a few weeks of inactivity?
What hormone is the active form of vitamin D3?
Which vitamin stimulates osteoblast activity?
Which vitamin is required for collagen synthesis?
What are Vitamins K and B 12 needed for?
synthesis of bone proteins
What stimulates bone growth?
Growth Hormone and Thyroxine
Which Hormone helps absorption of Calcium and Phosphate Ions along the digestive tract?
What organ is the primary souce of the hormone calcitriol?
Name the primary source of Growth Hormone
Name the primary source of Thyroxine
Thyroid Gland (follicle cells)
What do Calcitonin and Parathyroid Hormone do?
regulate calcium and phosphate ion levels
Where are hormones secreted from?
Endocrine Glands (ductless glands)
What is another name for C Cells?
Which bone matrix is the Osteoid from?
When there is a microfracture, which types of cells send chemicals that cause the periosteum to pull away from the bone to create a canapy?
What does the formation of a canopy allow the osteoclasts to do?
eat away at the bone until they reach the place where the microfracture is.
What is the indent or hole created by the osteoclasts under the canapy during a microfracture repair called?
During a microfracture repair, what happens to the osteoclasts after the crypt is created and their job is done?
they undergo apoptosis
Who has a lower bone density, males or females?
What needs to happen to calcium in order for us to be able to absorb it?
it needs to be ionized (Ca2+)
(the acids in our stomach ionize it)
When is the key time in a life to build bone?
teen years to early 20's
inadequate ossification (bones getting thinner/weaker with age)
Between which ages does Osteopenia begin?
What is the medical term for servere bone loss that affects normal function?
What can help predict the risk of bone fracture?
What is the most common technique to measure BMD (Bone Mineral Density) ?
DEXA ( Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry )
used with osteoporosis and osteopenia patients
What happens with the rare genetic disease FOP Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva?
muscle tissue replaced by bone
What disease is caused by an overproduction of growth hormones before the closing of the epiphyseal plate?
What disease causes the bones to get thicker in face, jaw, and hands?
(overproduction of growth hormones after closing of epiphyseal plate)
What percentage of bone mass do women and men lose per decade?
What normally causes Acromegaly?
tumor in pituitary gland
Name the form of dwarfism discussed in class?
What is another name for Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI)?
Brittle Bone Disease
List the 6 broad categories of bone shapes
* Sutural Bones (Wormian)
* Irregular Bones
* Sesamoid Bones
* Long Bones
* Short Bones
* Flat Bones
Where are Sutural Bones (Wormian) Bones often found around?
Give an example of a short bone, a long bone, and an irregular bone
short bones - Carpal bones
long bones- Femur, humerus
irregular bone- vertebra
Give an example of a flat bone, and a sesamoid bone
flat bone= parietal bone, sternum
sesamoid bone= patella
We don't all have 206 bones, the number varies because of which 2 types of bones?
Sutural (Wormian) Bones
Sesamoid Bones (on foot)
Which 3 areas in the body are part of the Axial Skeleton?
1. Skull and Associated Bones
2. Thoracic Cage
3. Vertebral Column
Which 4 areas of the body are part of the Appendicular Skeleton?
1. Pectoral Girdle
2. Pelvic Girdle
3. Upper Limbs
4. Lower Limbs
Which 2 body parts are included in the Pectoral Girdle of the Appendicular skeleton?
Clavicle, and Scapula
Which body parts (4) are included in the skull and assoc. bones section of the axial skeleton?
What 3 parts of the body are part of the Vertebral Column of the axial skeleton?
What forms the longitudinal axis of the body?
Does the Axial skeleton perform respiratory movements?
Are the Sphenoid and Ethmoid bones considered part of the cranium bones or the facial bones?
Is the Vomer considered part of the Cranium or the Facial Bones?
What does the Hyoid Bone support?
What is the braincase?
How many bones are in the Axial Skeleton?
At each suture, bones of the cranium are held tightly together with what type of connective tissue?
dense fibrous C.T.
What protects the spinal cord?
the vertebral column (spine)
What are the names of the vertebrae numbered C1 and C2?
Name the two primary curves (Accommodation curves) of the spine that are present at birth?
Thoracic and Sacral curves. (
Name the two Secondary Curves (Compensation Curves) that help compensate for shifts in weight and correct posture, that come after birth.
Cervical and Lumbar Curves )
Which disorder of the Axial skeleton is Kyphosis?
What is the name for sway back caused by pregnancy or obesity?
What is the medical term for crookedness of the back that is common in females?
What is a more simple turn for Vertebrosternal Ribs?
Which number of ribs are the true ribs?
Which numbers of the ribs are the false ribs? (vertebrochondral ribs)
If ribs 8-10 don't attach to the Sternum and ribs 11 and 12 are floating ribs, what do 8-10 attach to?
What is another name for floating ribs?
How many bones are in the vertebral column?
26 bones (24 vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx)
How are the cervical vertebrae numbered?
How are the Thoracic Vertebrae numbered?
How many sets of ribs do we have?
How are the Lumbar Vertebrae numbered?
What are the tiniest bones found in the skeleton?
How many bones make up the Appendicular Skeleton?
How is the sacrum area of the spine numbered?
How is the Coccyx area of the spine numbered?
How many curves in the spine of a fetus?
How many curves are in the spine of an adult?
What part of the sternum does the diaphragm attach to?
What birth defect can folic acid deficiency during pregnancy cause?
Spinal Bifida (Laminae of vertebral arch does not unite)
What is it called when a fibrocartilaginous pad slips out of place or ruptures in your back?
Where does the Pectoral Girdle connect with the Axial Skeleton?
Do the Acromial ends of the Clavicles articulate with the Scapulae?
Where is the surgical neck of a long bone and what is it?
found in the narrow metaphysis
the part of bone where you amputate
What is the Annulus of a vertebral column?
ring of fibrocartilage