Chapter 6 Bones Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Bones Deck (241):
1

What is the production of blood cells and platelets that occurs in the red bone marrow called?

hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis

2

Is Leverage one of the 5 primary functions of bone?

yes

3

What percentage of calcium is stored in bones?

99%

4

What mineral is needed for your neurons to communicate, your heart function, and muscle contraction?

Calcium

5

What is the name for the body or the shaft of a long bone?

Diaphysis

6

What is the name for the ends of a long bone?

epiphysis

7

What do we call the part of a long bone that is found between the diaphysis and the epiphysis?

Metaphysis

8

What does bones articulating mean?

bones coming together

9

What has to exist for a long bone to continue growing and lengthening?

epiphyseal (growth) plate

10

What is the most inner part of a long bone called?

Medullary Cavity

11

What type of bone marrow is not active?

yellow bone marrow

12

What is the core of the epiphysis composed of?

spongy bone

13

Where are lipids(adipose tissue) stored in a long bone?

yellow bone marrow

14

Where is yellow bone marrow found in a long bone?

the medullary cavity

15

Where is the red bone marrow found in a long bone?

epiphysis

16

What is the name for the outer covering of the bone?

periosteum

17

What is the name for the Inner covering of bone?

endosteum

18

Does the Articular Cartilage (hyaline) found at the surface ends of long bone have a periosteum covering?

no

19

What is the epiphyseal plate (growth plate) made of?

hyaline cartilage

20

When the epiphyseal (growth) plate becomes the epiphyseal line, what is it now composed of?

bone

21

What do the words Cortical and Compact both mean?

Dense (all refer to dense bone)

22

Spongy bone is always covered by a layer of dense/compact bone.
true or false?

true

23

What cell junction allows the plasma membrane of osteocytes to come together?

Gap Junctions

24

What lines the medullary cavity?

endosteum

25

What are the two types of epiphysis?

proximal and distal

26

Which part of the Matrix of Bone is the Collagen component?

Organic Matrix

27

Name the major mineral in the inorganic matrix of bone.

Calcium

28

Which Matrix of Bone gives bone flexibility?

Organic Matrix

29

Which part of the Matrix of Bone will the sun destroy?

Organic Matrix

30

In which Matrix of Bone are the cells actively secreting collagen?

Organic Matrix

31

Calcium salts deposit over the collagen and into the collagen of bone.
true or false?

true

32

What is the main inorganic ingredient of normal bone and teeth mentioned in class?

hydroxyapatite

33

Osteoblasts produce done by secreting collagen and pulling Calcium salts from where?

blood stream

34

When the plasma membrane of osteocytes come together through gap junctions, a small channel or canal is formed between the lacunae or ossified bones. What is this called?

Canaliculus

35

Where do the canaliculi feed into?

the central canal of bone

36

Are there blood vessels in the central canal?

yes

37

What is the central canal lined with?

endosteum

38

Are blood vessels found in the medullary cavity?

yes

39

What is the name for the cylindrical structure of compact bone?

Osteon

40

What is another name for Osteon?

Haversian system

41

What are the perforating canals lined with?

endosteum

42

For O2 to increase, there must be an increase in _____ ______.

blood supply

43

Do osteocytes and chondrocytes come from the same Mesenchyme (stem cell)?

yes

44

What dictates whether a stem cell (Mesenchyme) will differentiate into an bone cell or a cartilage cell?

oxygen and blood
(if O2 increases, blood supply increases=osteoprogenitor)
(if O2 decreases, blood supply decreases=chondroprogenitor)

45

What are other names for Trabecular bone?

Cancellous bone or Spongy Bone

46

When ossification centers make contact with other ossification centers, they form the network that we see with what type of bone?

Spongy bone (trabecular bone)

47

What is calcitriol?

Active vitamin D

48

What is the outer layer of the periosteum composed of?

Dense Fibrous C.T.

49

What is the inner layer of the periosteum composed of?

inner cellular layer

50

The parietal Bone of the cranium is a good example of what type of bone?

flat bone

51

If the outer part of flat bone is the compact bone referred to as the Cortex, what would you call you inner spongy bone?

Diploe

52

Bone is the combination of Organic Matrix and Inorganic Matrix.
true or false?

true

53

Besides Calcium, what other minerals are found in the Inorganic Matrix of Bone?

*Sodium
*Magnesium
*Fluoride

54

Bone is dynamic living tissue, what does this mean?

Bone regenerates itself

55

What type of bone cells are mature bone cells that are amitotic and trapped within a lacuna, maintaining the bone matrix?

osteocytes

56

Name the stem cell whose divisions produce osteoblasts.

Osteoprogenitor
(only bone cell that can divide)

57

Name the immature bone cell that secretes organic components of matrix.

Osteoblasts

58

Once Osteoblasts are done secreting, they become __________.

osteocytes

59

What type of bone cells destroy and break down bone with enzymes like collagenase?

Osteoclasts

60

Do Osteoclasts secrete acids and digestive enzymes to break down bone and release stored minerals into blood?

yes

61

Are Osteoclasts large cells or small cells?

large with 50+ nuclei

62

Why are osteoclasts multinucleate?

because they were once multiple single cells that came together
(like skeletal muscle)

63

What is Osteolysis or Bone Resorption?

destroying or eroding bone

64

The acids that are secreted by osteoclasts break down which part of the bone?

the Inorganic Matrix

65

The collagenase and other enzymes secreted by the osteoclasts, break down which part of the bone?

the organic matrix

66

An osteoprogenitor cell develops into what type of cell?

osteoblast

67

The osteoclasts derived from stemcells that produce what?

macrophages. this is why osteoclasts are from the white blood cell lineage

68

What is the production of new bone called?

osteogenesis

69

What are the concentric layers of lamellae always surrounding or in conjunction with?

central canal

70

Name the 3 types of lamellae

*Concentric Lamellae
* Circumferential Lamellae
* Interstitial Lamellae

71

Which lamellae forms the osteon?

Concentric Lamellae

72

Which lamellae is found in between the osteon in compact bone?

Interstitial lamella

73

Which lamellae is found around the outside binding osteons together, and found on both inner and outer bone surfaces and covered by the periosteum and the endosteum

Circumferential Lamella

74

What are the fibers that make up the lamella of bone structure?

collagen

75

The periosteum of compact bone has an outer fibrous layer and an inner cellular layer. What is another name for the inner layer?

inner osteogenic layer

76

Which way does that perforating canal run in conjunction with the central canal?

perpendicular to the central canal.
central canal=vertical
perforating canal= horizontal

77

What secures the periosteum to underlying bone?

Perforating (Sharpey's) fibers

78

What type of bone is trabeculae part of?

spongy or cancellous bone

79

What type of Connective tissue is the outer layer of the periosteum made of?

dense irregular c.t.

80

The periosteum covers all bones except for parts enclosed in joint capsules and _________ ________

articular surfaces

81

Sharpey's fibers are made of thick bundles of what?

collagen

82

What type of bone cell is trapped inside of the lacuna?

osteocyte

83

Which 3 bone cell types are found in the osteogenic layer (cellular layer)?

*osteoprogenitor cells
*osteoblasts
*osteoclasts

84

Do the Sharpey's fiber's connect with the collagen fibers in the bone?

yes

85

Is the Endosteum internal membrane completely cellular?

yes

86

Name the 4 bone cells found in the endosteum

*osteoprogenitors
*osteoblasts
*osteoclasts
*endosteal cells (undifferentiated bone cells)

87

Endosteum is found lining the inner surface of bone canals, lining the medullary (marrow) cavity, and covers the _________ of spongy bone

trabecule

88

The endosteum is an incomplete cellular layer, what do they mean by that?

there is no outer fibrous layer

89

When does the Nutrient artery of mature long bone branch?

once it enters the diaphysis

90

Does the nutrient artery penetrate the hyaline cartilage found at the end of the long bone?

no, the hyaline cartilage gets it's nutrients through diffusion

91

Name the 4 arteries responsible for the blood supply of Mature long bone.

1. Nutrient Artery
2. Metaphyseal Arteries
3. Periosteal Arteries
4. Epiphyseal Arteries

92

What type of bone is not a weight baring bone, has no osteon, and doesn't have a central canal?

spongy bone

93

Is the trabeculae found in spongy bone well organized or running every which way?

running every which way

94

Do Trabeculae of spongy bone have blood vessels?

no, the matrix of spongy bone is avascular

95

What are the spaces found between trabeculae of spongy bone filled with?

Red Bone Marrow

96

Why is yellow bone marrow yellow?

because it stores fat

97

What type of bone is the majority of the cranium composed of?

spongy bone

98

What is a name for blood cell production in red bone marrow?
(there are two)

hemopoiesis

99

List the 2 major forms of Ossification

* Intramembranous Ossification
* Endochondral Ossification

100

Which type of ossification occurs for the majority of the body?

Endochondral Ossification

101

What type of ossification occurs in the flat bones of the cranium (skull bones), mandible, clavicle ?

Intramembranous Ossification

102

Which type of ossification is the simpler of the two?

Intramembranous Ossification

103

What does Endocondral mean?

within cartilage

104

Define Ossification

transition from one C.T. to bone

105

define calcification

mineralization of bone

106

What do we call the area that the mesenchyme cells cluster together and differentiate in during ossification?

ossification center

107

The ossification center is the part that's hardening and becoming bone.
true or false?

true

108

What tissue doe the intramembranous ossification process always start with?

Dense fibrous C. T.

109

What tissue does the endochondral ossification process always begin with?

Cartilage

110

What type of specialized cells produce the perichondrium?

fibroblasts

111

Endochondral Oss. takes Hyaline cartilage and makes it bone.
true or false?

true

112

What is appositional growth?

growth at the surface

113

The epiphyseal plate is always hyaline cartilage, and the epiphyseal line is always ____.

bone

114

During ossification of hyaline cartilage, the chondrocytes enlarge within the calcifying matrix and die, the cartilage then __________.

disintegrates

115

What are the "beams" on the sides of the medullary cavity made of?

compact bone

116

What cell secretes bone?

osteoblasts

117

Where do the secondary ossification centers form in long bones?

epiphysis

118

Does the periosteum cover the articular cartilage found at the ends of long bone?

no

119

As long as chondrocytes are dividing, the epiphyseal (growth) plate will remain.
true or false?

true

120

List the 4 zones of bone growth in the epiphyseal (growth) plate.

1. resting zone (closest to epiphysis)
2. proliferating zone (dividing, growing)
3. hypertrophic cartilage (degenerating zone)
4. calcified cartilage (Ossification zone)

121

What do they mean by hypertrophic cartilage?

the chondrocytes enlarge and then die off

122

In which direction are the older chondrocytes pushed during bone growth and cell division?

from the epiphysis toward the medullary cavity

123

Once the periosteum closes surrounding a periosteal blood vessel, it becomes the _________ and loses its outer fibrous layer

endosteum

124

What is the normal range of Blood Calcium?

8.5 mg/dl - 10.8 mg/dl

125

When are you considered Hypocalcemic (Hypocalcemia)?

when your blood calcium level is below 8.5 mg/dl

126

When would someone be considered Hypercalcemic (Hypercalcemia)?

When their blood calcium level is above 10.8 mg/dl

127

What does BMD mean?

Bone Mineral Density

128

Define Hypocalcemic tetany.

muscle spasms

129

Does calcium play a role in blood clotting, nerve impulse transmission, and muscle contraction?

yes, and of course bone health

130

Name the 2 hormones responsible for regulating calcium in the body

PTH (parathyroid hormone)
Calcitonin

131

Which hormone is stimulated by hypocalcemia and is produced by the parathyroid gland?

Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

132

Calcitonin is secreted by C cells in the thyroid gland, what stimulates it's production?

hypercalcemia (high calcium ion levels in plasma)
(above 10.8)

133

When the calcium ion levels in the plasma are low (below 8.5 mg/dl), negative feedback kicks. Osteoclasts break down bone to release _______ ____ into the blood.

calcium ions

134

Can calcium be excreted through fecal matter and through the urine?

yes. small intestine excretes calcium into fecal matter and the kidneys lose calcium in the urine

135

When do you get kidney stones, with too much or too little calcium?

too much calcium

136

Forces coming from which direction can fracture a long bone?

horizontal

137

An osteon is compact bone all running in the same direction (organized).
true or false?

true

138

Does bone remodeling stop at puberty?

No, bone remodeling occurs throughout our entire life

139

Adipose cells are found in yellow bone marrow, what do these adipose cells store that are an energy reserve?

triglycerides

140

The “soft spots” that help the fetal skull pass through the birth canal, later harden as they undergo which type of ossification?

intramembranous ossification

141

What do the chondrocytes found in Zone 1 (zone of resting cartilage) do if they aren't functioning in bone growth?

they anchor the epiphyseal plate to the epiphysis

142

What is the word used for the addition of minerals and collagen fibers to bone by osteoblasts?

deposition

143

In order for a mesenchyme cell (osteochondroprogenitor) to differentiate into an osteoprogenitor, oxygen levels and blood supply must increase or decrease?

increase oxygen (O2)

144

For a mesenchyme cell (osteochondroprogenitor) to differentiate into a chondroprogenitor, oxygen levels/blood supply must increase or decrease?

decrease oxygen (O2)

145

What type of ossification does the hyoid undergo?

endochondral ossification

146

Which is the more common type of ossification?

endochondral ossification

147

When the blood vessels in a broken bone tear, hemorrage then clot, this is the 1st of 4 steps in the fracture repair process and is called a ________ ________.

Fracture Hematoma

148

Name the 4 steps in the Fracture repair process.

1. Fracture Hematoma
2. Fibrocartilaginous callus-(temporary fix)
3. Bony Callus
4. Remodeling

149

There are 4 General classifications of fractures, list them

1. Position of bone ends
2. Completeness of break
3. Orientation of fracture relative to long axis of bone
4. Penetration of skin

150

What are we trying to decide when checking the position of bone ends after a fracture?

Non-displaced or displaced

151

What are we trying to decide when checking the orientation of a fracture relative to the long axis of the bone?

linear or transverse

152

When deciding on the penetration of the skin in a fracture (#4) What does simple mean and what does compound mean?

simple=closed
compound=open

153

Why is an Open (compound) fracture considered serious?

bone has penetrated skin

154

Name the fracture where the bone is crushed or broken into pieces at the site of impact.

comminuted

155

Which type of fracture is nondisplaced and is common in children whose bones are not fully ossified?

Greenstick

156

What type of fracture occurs when the two bones forcefully collide into eachother?

Impacted

157

What bone does a Pott fracture affect?

Fibula

158

Which bone does a Colles fracture affect?

Radius

159

What fraction of bone mass can be lost within a few weeks of inactivity?

1/3

160

What hormone is the active form of vitamin D3?

calcitriol

161

Which vitamin stimulates osteoblast activity?

Vitamin A

162

Which vitamin is required for collagen synthesis?

Vitamin C

163

What are Vitamins K and B 12 needed for?

synthesis of bone proteins

164

What stimulates bone growth?

Growth Hormone and Thyroxine

165

Which Hormone helps absorption of Calcium and Phosphate Ions along the digestive tract?

calcitriol

166

What organ is the primary souce of the hormone calcitriol?

kidneys

167

Name the primary source of Growth Hormone

Pituitary Gland

168

Name the primary source of Thyroxine

Thyroid Gland (follicle cells)

169

What do Calcitonin and Parathyroid Hormone do?

regulate calcium and phosphate ion levels

170

Where are hormones secreted from?

Endocrine Glands (ductless glands)

171

What is another name for C Cells?

Parafollicular cells

172

Which bone matrix is the Osteoid from?

Organic Matrix

173

When there is a microfracture, which types of cells send chemicals that cause the periosteum to pull away from the bone to create a canapy?

osteocytes

174

What does the formation of a canopy allow the osteoclasts to do?

eat away at the bone until they reach the place where the microfracture is.

175

What is the indent or hole created by the osteoclasts under the canapy during a microfracture repair called?

crypt

176

During a microfracture repair, what happens to the osteoclasts after the crypt is created and their job is done?
(hint: Cheech)

they undergo apoptosis

177

Who has a lower bone density, males or females?

females

178

What needs to happen to calcium in order for us to be able to absorb it?

it needs to be ionized (Ca2+)
(the acids in our stomach ionize it)

179

When is the key time in a life to build bone?

teen years to early 20's

180

Define Osteopenia

inadequate ossification (bones getting thinner/weaker with age)

181

Between which ages does Osteopenia begin?

30-40

182

What is the medical term for servere bone loss that affects normal function?

Osteoporosis

183

What can help predict the risk of bone fracture?

BMD Measurement

184

What is the most common technique to measure BMD (Bone Mineral Density) ?

DEXA ( Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry )
used with osteoporosis and osteopenia patients

185

What happens with the rare genetic disease FOP Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva?

muscle tissue replaced by bone

186

What disease is caused by an overproduction of growth hormones before the closing of the epiphyseal plate?

Gigantism

187

What disease causes the bones to get thicker in face, jaw, and hands?
(overproduction of growth hormones after closing of epiphyseal plate)

Acromegaly

188

What percentage of bone mass do women and men lose per decade?

women= 8%
men= 3%

189

What normally causes Acromegaly?

tumor in pituitary gland

190

Name the form of dwarfism discussed in class?

Achondroplasia

191

Define Osteosarcoma

Bone Cancer

192

What is another name for Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI)?

Brittle Bone Disease

193

List the 6 broad categories of bone shapes

* Sutural Bones (Wormian)
* Irregular Bones
* Sesamoid Bones
* Long Bones
* Short Bones
* Flat Bones

194

Where are Sutural Bones (Wormian) Bones often found around?

Lamboidal suture

195

Give an example of a short bone, a long bone, and an irregular bone

short bones - Carpal bones
long bones- Femur, humerus
irregular bone- vertebra

196

Give an example of a flat bone, and a sesamoid bone

flat bone= parietal bone, sternum
sesamoid bone= patella

197

We don't all have 206 bones, the number varies because of which 2 types of bones?

Sutural (Wormian) Bones
Sesamoid Bones (on foot)

198

Which 3 areas in the body are part of the Axial Skeleton?

1. Skull and Associated Bones
2. Thoracic Cage
3. Vertebral Column

199

Which 4 areas of the body are part of the Appendicular Skeleton?

1. Pectoral Girdle
2. Pelvic Girdle
3. Upper Limbs
4. Lower Limbs

200

Which 2 body parts are included in the Pectoral Girdle of the Appendicular skeleton?

Clavicle, and Scapula

201

Which body parts (4) are included in the skull and assoc. bones section of the axial skeleton?

Cranium
Facial Bones
Auditory Ossicles
Hyoid

202

What 3 parts of the body are part of the Vertebral Column of the axial skeleton?

Vertebrae
Sacrum
Coccyx

203

What forms the longitudinal axis of the body?

Axial Skeleton

204

Does the Axial skeleton perform respiratory movements?

yes

205

Are the Sphenoid and Ethmoid bones considered part of the cranium bones or the facial bones?

the Cranium

206

Is the Vomer considered part of the Cranium or the Facial Bones?

Facial Bones

207

What does the Hyoid Bone support?

The Larynx

208

What is the braincase?

the Cranium

209

How many bones are in the Axial Skeleton?

80

210

At each suture, bones of the cranium are held tightly together with what type of connective tissue?

dense fibrous C.T.

211

What protects the spinal cord?

the vertebral column (spine)

212

What are the names of the vertebrae numbered C1 and C2?

C1- Atlas
C2- Axis

213

Name the two primary curves (Accommodation curves) of the spine that are present at birth?

Thoracic and Sacral curves. (
(

214

Name the two Secondary Curves (Compensation Curves) that help compensate for shifts in weight and correct posture, that come after birth.

Cervical and Lumbar Curves )
)

215

Which disorder of the Axial skeleton is Kyphosis?

Humpback

216

What is the name for sway back caused by pregnancy or obesity?

Lordosis

217

What is the medical term for crookedness of the back that is common in females?

Scoliosis

218

What is a more simple turn for Vertebrosternal Ribs?

True Ribs

219

Which number of ribs are the true ribs?

1-7

220

Which numbers of the ribs are the false ribs? (vertebrochondral ribs)

8-12

221

If ribs 8-10 don't attach to the Sternum and ribs 11 and 12 are floating ribs, what do 8-10 attach to?

Rib 7

222

What is another name for floating ribs?

vertebral ribs

223

How many bones are in the vertebral column?

26 bones (24 vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx)

224

How are the cervical vertebrae numbered?

C1-C7

225

How are the Thoracic Vertebrae numbered?

T1-T12

226

How many sets of ribs do we have?

12

227

How are the Lumbar Vertebrae numbered?

L1-L5

228

What are the tiniest bones found in the skeleton?

Auditory Ossicles

229

How many bones make up the Appendicular Skeleton?

126 bones

230

How is the sacrum area of the spine numbered?

S1-S5

231

How is the Coccyx area of the spine numbered?

C01-C03/5

232

How many curves in the spine of a fetus?

only 1

233

How many curves are in the spine of an adult?

4

234

What part of the sternum does the diaphragm attach to?

Xiphoid Process

235

What birth defect can folic acid deficiency during pregnancy cause?

Spinal Bifida (Laminae of vertebral arch does not unite)

236

What is it called when a fibrocartilaginous pad slips out of place or ruptures in your back?

herniated disc

237

Where does the Pectoral Girdle connect with the Axial Skeleton?

the Manubrium

238

Do the Acromial ends of the Clavicles articulate with the Scapulae?

yes

239

Where is the surgical neck of a long bone and what is it?

found in the narrow metaphysis
the part of bone where you amputate

240

What is the Annulus of a vertebral column?

ring of fibrocartilage

241

Define Interosseous Membrane

sheath of thin C.T. that connects/joins the Radius and Ulna or Tibia and Fibula