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1

immunity

a state of responsiveness to foreign substances such as microorganisms and tumor proteins; fx: defense, homeostasis, surveillance

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homeostasis

damaged cellular substances are digested and removed, but the body's different cell types remain unchanged

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surveillance

mutations continually arise, but are normally recognized as foreign cells and destroyed

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active immunity

takes awhile to develop, but long lasting

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passive immunity

short lived because the host did not synthesize the antibodies and does not retain memory cells for the antigen

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antigen

body recognizes a foreign substance and elicits an immune response; most composed of protein

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thymus gland

central (primary) lymphoid organ- shrinks with age and is important in the differntiation and maturation of t lymphocytes

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bone marrow

central (primary) lymphoid organ- produces RBCs, WBCs, and platelets

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lymphoid tissue

found in submucosa of the respiratory, genitourinary, and GI tract- protects body surface from external microorganisms e.g. tonsils

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spleen

primary site for filtering foreign substances from blood and major site of immune responses to blood-borne antigens

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lymphnodes

filtrate foreign material brought to site and circulate lymphocytes

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mononuclear phagocytes

monocytes & macrophages; capture through phagocytosis and the macrophage bound antigen is presented to lymphocytes which triggers an immune response

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B lymphocytes

produced in bone and differentiate into plasma cells which produce antibodies (immunoglobulins)

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T lymphocytes

migrate from bone marrow to thymus, compose 70%-80% of lymphocytes and provide immunity to intracellular viruses, tumor cells, and fungi; long term immunity

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T cytotoxic cells

CD8 attack antigens on cell membrane of foreign pathogens and destroy, antigen specific and sensitized by exposure to the antigen

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T helper cells

CD4 regulate cell-mediated immunity and the humoral antibody response

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natural killer cells

involved in cell-mediated immunity, large lymphocytes, do not require prior sensitization for activation, recognize and kill virus-infected cells, tumor cells, and transplanted grafts

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antibodies

immune globulins produced by lymphocytes in response to antigens

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dendritic cells

capture antigens at sites of contact with the external environment and then transport the antigen to a T cell with specificity for the antigen and activate the immune response

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cytokines

soluble factors secreted by WBCs that act as messengers between cell types and instruct cells to alter their proliferation, differentiation, secretion, or activity

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interferons

type of cytokine that help the body's natural defenses attack tumors and viruses and enhance natural killer cells

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what is the first antibody formed by humoral immunity?

IgM formed by the primary immune response (4-8 days after initial exposure); forms antibodies to ABO blood antigens

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cell-mediated immunity

t cells. macrophages, and natural killer cells that are initiated through specific antigen recognition by t cells; memory cells- protects against fungus, intracellular viruses, chronic infections, and tumor cells

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humoral immunity

antibody-mediated immunity produced by b lymphocytes that have memory cells- protects against bacteria, extracellular viruses, respiratory pathogens, and GI pathogens

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examples of when humoral response is initiated

anaphylactic shock, atopic diseases, transfusion reactions, bacterial infections

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what is the second antibody formed by humoral immunity?

IgG formed by the secondary response (1-3 days after second exposure and is more rapid & stronger) ONLY ONE TO CROSS PLACENTA

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examples of when cell-mediated response is initiated

TB, fungal infections, contact dermatitis, graft rejection, destruction of cancer cells

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IgA

found in body secretions and lines mucous membranes to protect body surfaces

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IgD

found in plasma, assists differentiation of B lymphocytes

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IgE

found in plasma and interstitial fluid & causes symptoms of allergic reaction