Chapter 17 Electrolytes: Med Surg Flashcards Preview

LCCC Nursing > Chapter 17 Electrolytes: Med Surg > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 17 Electrolytes: Med Surg Deck (54)
Loading flashcards...
1

normal level of sodium

135-145, regulates osmolality, blood pressure, and nerve impulses to muscle and tissue

2

sources of sodium

salt, hypertonic NaCl, soda, processed foods

3

causes of hypernatremia

excess sodium intake, inadequate water intake, excessive water loss, disease (diabetes, primary hyperaldosteronism)

4

signs and symptoms of hypernatremia

restless, thirsty, weight loss, postural hypotension, sticky mucous membranes

5

treatment for hypernatremia

water replacement, hypotonic saline (5% dextrose in water), no sodium in diet,

6

causes of hyponatremia

excess sodium loss, inadequate sodium intake, excess water gain, disease (SIADH, heart failure)

7

signs and symptoms of hyponatremia

irritable, apprehension, dry mucous membranes and cold and clammy, tachycardia, bounding pulse

8

treatment for hyponatremia

fluid restriction, small amounts of hypertonic saline (3%), drugs that block ADH e.g. Vaprisol

9

normal level of potassium

3.5-5.0, 98% of potassium is in cells and regulates cardiac rhythm, fluid balance, ICF osmolality

10

sources of potassium

potatoes, brocolli, bananas

11

serious low for sodium

110

12

what type of diuretic for hyperkalemia?

loop

13

causes of hyperkalemia

excess potasium, shift of potassium out of cells due to acidosis or injury, failure to eliminate potassium, RENAL FAILURE, tourniquet left on too long and shaking the vial

14

signs and symptoms of hyperkalemia

irritable, tummy and leg cramps, weakness of lower extremities, irregular pulse

15

treatment for hyperkalemia

PUT ON CARDIAC MONITOR, no potassium in diet, increase elimination through loop diuretic (Lasix) or Kayexalate (sodium polystyrene sulfonate), and force potassium from ECF to ICF through insulin and maintainence glucose, calcium gluconate to reduce cardiac dysrhythmia

16

what EKG change is significant with hyperkalemia?

tall peaked T wave

17

causes of hypokalemia

potassium loss, shift of potassium into cells (too much insulin, alkalosis, stress), decreased potassium intake

18

signs and symptoms of hypokalemia

fatigue, muscle weakness, leg cramps, vomiting, decreased reflexes, weak pulse, polyuria, hyperglycemia

19

treatment of hypokalemia

KCl supplments (IV must be diluted, not IV push, inverted several times to properly mix, never add to current hanging bag) and increase potassium in diet

20

what EKG change is significant with hypokalemia?

shallow T wave

21

normal level of calcium

8.6-10.2, transmits nerve impulses, myocardial contractions, blood clotting, formation of teeth and bone, 99% of calcium is combined with phosphorus and concentrated in skeletal system

22

significant amounts of calcium

12= coma 14= death

23

causes of hypercalcemia

too much calcium, malignancies with bone metastasis, prolonged immobilization, Vit D overdose

24

signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia

lethargy, decreased reflexes, decreased memory, anorexia, bone pain, polyuria, stupor, coma

25

treatment of hypercalcemia

excrete through urine through loop diuretic (lasix), drink 3000-4000 mL fluid/day, isotonic IV fluids, calcitonin

26

causes of hypocalcemia

decreased parathyroid hormone, acute pancretitis, multiple blood transfusions, alcoholism, increased phosphate, decreased Vit D

27

signs and symptoms of hypocalcemia

easy fatigued, numb around mouth, hyperflexia, laryngeal spasms ("eeeeee!")

28

chvostek's sign

tap facial nerve and muscles contract; indicative of hypocalcemia

29

trousseau's sign

carpal spasm induced by blood pressure cuff above systolic; indicative of hypocalcemia

30

treatment of hypocalcemia

increased calcium and Vit D in diet, TUMS