Chapter 17 Fluids: Med Surg Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 17 Fluids: Med Surg Deck (56)
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1

what does water content vary with?

gender, age, body mass

2

percentage of body weight of water greater in men or women?

men

3

who would have more water content as compared to body weight?

infants 70%-80%

4

intracellular fluid

2/3 of body water and 40% of body weight

5

extracellular fluid

1/3 of body water, consisits of intravascular, interstitial and transcellular spaces

6

intravascular space

1/3 of ECF located here as plasma

7

interstitial space

2/3 of ECF

8

transcellular space

1 L of ECF; CSF, fluid in GI, pleural, synovial, peritoneal fluid

9

why is body water needed?

fluids are in constant motion and transport nutrients, electrolyes, oxygen, regulate temperatures, lubricate joints and membranes, and aids digestion

10

how much does 1 L of fluid weigh?

2.2 kg

11

electrolytes

molecules dissociate (split into ions) when placed in water

12

ions

electrically charged particles

13

cations

positive charged ions

14

anions

negative charged ions

15

valence

electrical charge of an ion

16

ECF cation

sodium

17

ECF anion

chloride

18

ICF cation

potassium

19

ICF anion

phosphate

20

diffusion

movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to one of low concentration; membrane must be permeable; no energy

21

facilitated diffusion

same as diffusion, but some molecules diffuse slowly into the cell and need some help so a carrier molecule accelerates the rate; no energy

22

active transport

molecules move against the concentration gradient, external energy is required; e.g. sodium potassium pump: potassium in and sodium out

23

osmosis

water movement through a semipermeable (favors water not solutes) membrance from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration; no external energy, stops when equal

24

osmolality

describes fluids (water balance) inside the body, typically performed to evaluate the concentration of plasma in urine

25

normal plasma osmolality

275-295

26

increased plasma osmolality

concentration is too high or water is too low aka water deficit -> dehydrated

27

decreased plasma osmolality

concentration is too low or water is too high aka water excess

28

major determinant of plasma osmolality

sodium and glucose

29

ECF and ICF are:

isotonic to each other, hence no movement of water occurs and no gain or loss of water occurs although ECF expands e.g. lactated ringers, 0.5% saline

30

if the cell is surrounded by hypotonic fluid:

water moves into the cell and causes it to swell and possibly burst ECF -> ICF e.g. 0.45% saline