Chapter 14 Principles of Disease and Epidemiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14 Principles of Disease and Epidemiology Deck (36):
1

Study of disease

Pathology

2

Study of the CAUSE of a disease

Eitiology

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Colonization of the body by pathogens

Infection

4

An abnormal state in which the body is not functioning normally

Disease

5

animal or human that harbors pathogen. Provides nutrients for pathogen.

Host

6

Lives off of a host. Cause damage to body.

Parasite

7

A microorganism that causes disease and death.

Pathogen

8

How does normal flora help.

-Occupying niches that pathogens might occupy.
-Producing acids.
-Producing bacteriocines.

9

To live together. The relationship with the normal flora and the host,

Symbiosis

10

Relationship that only one benefits. Example?

Commensalism.
Tape worm

11

Both host and microorganism benefit. Example?

Mutalism
E. coli

12

Only parasite benefits.

Parastism

13

Disease caused by infections of parthogenic microorganisms

Germ Theory of Disease

14

Used to prove the cause of an infectious disease.

Koch's Postulates. (Experiment)

15

Subjective characteristics of disease felt by the patient.
-Nausea
-Pain

Symptoms

16

Objective manifestations of diease that can be observed by others.
-Fever
-Vomiting
-Shivering

Signs.

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Symptoms + Signs

Syndrome

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No symptoms

Assymptomatic

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Number of new cases of a disease in a given area during a given period of time

Incidence

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Number of total cases of a disease in a given area during a given period of time

Prevalence

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Diease occurs at stable frequency in given population.

Endemic

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Few cases occur with in area

Sporadic

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Number cases observed exceeds the number of expected

Epidemic

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Epidemics occurring simultaneously in contienents

Pandemic

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Period of no signs or symptoms

Incubation period

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Milds signs or symptoms. Period from incubation period till you start showing s/s.

Prodromal period

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Most severe s/s

Period of illness

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s/s still present. Microorganisms subsiding.

Period of decline

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No s/s present. Microorganisms dying off. Still contagious.

Period of convalescence

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In order to cause a disease what must happen?

Microorganisms must maintain a reservoir, leave reservoir and gain access to new host, colonize and harm the body. Most pathogens cannot survive long outside of a host.

31

Disease caused by animals.

Zoonoses

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How is zoonoses caused?

-Eating animal
-Direct contact with animal or its waste.
-Bloodsucking arthropods

33

Infected individuals who are asymptomatic but infective to others.

Human Carriers

34

Give example of nonliving reservoirs. (3)

-Soil
-Water
-Food

35

Hospital acquired infection.

Nosocomial infections

36

Study where and when diseases occur and how they are transmitted within populations.

Epidemiology.