Flashcards in Chapter 15 Deck (66)
what is abnormal psychology?
The scientific study of psychological disorders.
the _______ _______ approach to understanding mental illness has been a major influence on our practices
most definitions have four things in common including?
deviance (behaviours are abnormal when they differ from society), distress (behaviours cause distress and unhappiness), dysfunction (behaviours interfere with daily functioning) and danger (dangerous to themselvs and others)
what is the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)?
The system used by most countries to classify psychological disorders; published by the World Health
the leading classification system in north america ________ is the current version
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), DSM-5 is the current version
A list of disorders in North America, with descriptions of the symptoms and guidelines for determining when individuals should be assigned to the categories, is known as the ___________ classification system?
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
What are the “four Ds” of abnormal behaviour?
deviance, distress, dysfunction, and danger
the perspectives that scientists use to explain phenoma are known as?
models or paradigms
depression seems to be related to which neurotransmitters?
norepinephrin and serotonin
the notion that disorders arise from an interaction of internal and external causes resulted in a model known as?
diathesis stress model
principles on how the environment changes a persons behaviours is?
phobia may result because of _______?
when people display abnormal functioning ________ problems are to blame?
abnormal functioning can result from ______ and _______?
maladaptive beliefs and illogical thinking processes
beck discovered what illogical thinking processes?
selective perception (seeing only negative features), magnification (exaggerating importance of undesired events), overgeneralization ( drawing broad negative conclusions)
what is the family systems theory?
each family has its own implicit rules, relationship structure, and communication patterns that shape the behaviour of the individual members
family systems theorists believe _____ and ______ result in abnormal behaviour?
structure and communication
Developmental psychopathology is?
The study of how problem behaviours evolve as a function of a person’s genes and early experiences, and how these early issues affect the person at later life stages.
developmental psychologists attempt to identify?
developmental psychologists have contributed to the field of?
equifinality (idea that different children can start from different points and wind up at the same outcome) multifinality (idea that children can start from the same point and wind up at any number of different outcomes)
what is resilience?
ability to recover from or avoid the serious effects of negative circumstances
What major types of brain problems are linked to abnormal functioning?
deficient or excessive activity of neurotransmitters, genetics or viral infections
What of the following is NOT a major model used by psychologists to explain abnormal functioning?
cognitive! all of these are (neuroscience, psychodynamic, socio-cultural)
what are the two primary types of mood disorder
unipolar (depression) and bipolar disorder
what is the opposite of depression called?
mania (euphoria or frenzied energy)
how common is major depressive disorder?
8% of Canadian adults
are woman more likely than men to have depression?
yes it is more common in women
what are the two most influential cognitive behaviours explanations for depression?
learned helplessness and negative thinking
what is the Cognitive triad?
A pattern of thinking in which individuals repeatedly interpret their experiences, themselves, and their futures in negative ways that lead them to feel depressed.