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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (88)
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1

what are the methods for examining the human brain?

examining autopsy tissue, testing behaviour of patients with damage to certain parts of the brain, recording brain activity through multiple electrodes and through animal studies

2

what is neuroimaging?

method for studying brain activity and structure by obtaining visual images in awake humans.

3

what are the three methods of neuroimaging?

CAT or CT scans, MRI and DTI

4

what are CT scans?

produce clear two dimensional images of brain and other organs, computer combinations of many x rays can produce 3d images that can be virtually sliced.

5

what is an MRI?

uses a strong magnetic field to produce images of anatomy, Produces 3d images, produce much clearer images than CT scans and does NOT use radiation.

6

Why are CT scans used?

better at detecting brain diseases or blood vessel abnormalities, detecting many forms of cancer, faster and cost less.

7

What is DTI?

measures orientation of white matter,

8

What is an EEG?

examines bran function and allows to visualize na localize it very crudely.

9

what is a PET?

harmless radioactive substance is injected into a persons blood, radiation detectors are then use to scan the persons brain.

10

what is an fMRI?

allows for detection in changes of blood flow, does not use radiation and is much faster.

11

what is the advantage os an MRI over a CT?

less risk and produce better images

12

what is a neuron?

nerve cell

13

what is a group of neurons that work together called?

networks

14

what are glial cells?

cells in addition to neurons that make up the nervous system

15

what are the categories of glia?

astroglia, oligodendroglia, shwan cells, ependymal cells,, microglia

16

what do astroglia do?

regulate the flow of blood into different brain regions, absorb or clean up chemicals released by other neurons

17

what do shwan cells do?

provides a fatty sheath, myelin that insulates axons of neurons

18

what are ependymal cells?

line the walls ventricles, fluid filled spaces within the brain

19

what do microglia do?

cleaning up debris and de generating dead neurons

20

what are the two types of cells in the nervous system?

neurons and glia

21

what does the central nervous system involve?

motor, sensory, and cognitive information

22

what is a neurotransmitter?

a chemical released by other neurons

23

what is action potential?

overal charge inside a neuron differs from the overall charge outside creating a difference in charge across the neuron membrane

24

what does it mean when a neuron is polarized?

inside of a neuron is negatively charged compared to the outside

25

what is resting potential?

electrical charge of a neuron at rest

26

what is selective permeability?

membrane in not equally permeable to all ions

27

what are sodium potassium pumps?

protein molecules that push out sodium ions and push out potassium ions. (3 sodium, 2 potassium)

28

what are the two affects of neurotransmitters?

depolarize (inside of neuron becomes less negative) or hyper polarize (inside of neuron becomes more negative)

29

what is the absolute refractory period?

breif period where a neuron is completely unable to fire again

30

what is relative refractory?

neuron can only fire if it receives stimuli stronger than its usual threshold