Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (57)
what is the best definition of psychology?
the study of mental processes and behaviour
when studying mental processes what are the 4 goals psychologists have in mind?
descriptive, explanation, prediction, control
what are the 3 levels of analysis?
the brain, the person and the group
who was hippocrates?
greek physician who believed that disease had a physical and rational explanation
who believed that someones health was influenced by humours?
who studied whether the mind and body function together?
socrates and plato (concluded they were distinct)
what did Aristotle conclude?
humans are closely related to animals
who caused the disappearance of the roles of magic and mysticism in psycology, and that the brain controlled the body by moving fluids?
what is empirism and who created it ?
all knowledge originates in expierence, francis bacon
who popularized the scientific method
who believed that the natural world could be understood by science and mathematics?
who believed that we learn by experiences?
who studied the relationship between physical stimuli and their psychological affects?
who was first to measure the speed of nerve impulse?
hermon von helmoltz, led to understanding that thought and movement are linked. contributed to foundation of modern psychology and neuroscience.
who was gustav fechner
psychology had the potential to become a quantified science
what does natural selection propose?
chance variations are passed down from parents to offspring, some of these are adaptive.
what did William wundt observe?
studied the content and processes of conciousness
who developed voluntarism?
who created structuralism?
what is structuralism?
the structure of a concious expierence
what is introspection?
evaluation of mental processes and how simple thoughts expand into complex ideas
what was william james's approach?
what is functionalism?
how mental processes function to adapt to changing environments.
what is gestalt psychology?
we have inborn tendencies to structure, these tendencies cause us to see things as broad perceptual units rather than individual sensations.
what is the main difference between structuralism and functionalism?
functionalism was based on the main belief that scientists should examine the purpose of consciousness
what was sigmand freud involved in?
many of our thoughts and feelings exist beyond the realm of awareness, focused on patients involved with histeria
what is the psychoanalytic theory and from did it originate from?
freud, mental processes are influenced by the competition among unconscious forces to come into awareness.
what is behaviourism?
psychology should only be studied on observable behaviours
what did behaviourists tend to focus on?
stimuli and responses