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1

what is the best definition of psychology?

the study of mental processes and behaviour

2

when studying mental processes what are the 4 goals psychologists have in mind?

descriptive, explanation, prediction, control

3

what are the 3 levels of analysis?

the brain, the person and the group

4

who was hippocrates?

greek physician who believed that disease had a physical and rational explanation

5

who believed that someones health was influenced by humours?

hippocrates

6

who studied whether the mind and body function together?

socrates and plato (concluded they were distinct)

7

what did Aristotle conclude?

humans are closely related to animals

8

who caused the disappearance of the roles of magic and mysticism in psycology, and that the brain controlled the body by moving fluids?

leahey 2000

9

what is empirism and who created it ?

all knowledge originates in expierence, francis bacon

10

who popularized the scientific method

francis bacon

11

who believed that the natural world could be understood by science and mathematics?

rene descartes

12

who believed that we learn by experiences?

john locke

13

who studied the relationship between physical stimuli and their psychological affects?

johannes muller

14

who was first to measure the speed of nerve impulse?

hermon von helmoltz, led to understanding that thought and movement are linked. contributed to foundation of modern psychology and neuroscience.

15

who was gustav fechner

psychology had the potential to become a quantified science

16

what does natural selection propose?

chance variations are passed down from parents to offspring, some of these are adaptive.

17

what did William wundt observe?

studied the content and processes of conciousness

18

who developed voluntarism?

wundt

19

who created structuralism?

edward titchner

20

what is structuralism?

the structure of a concious expierence

21

what is introspection?

evaluation of mental processes and how simple thoughts expand into complex ideas

22

what was william james's approach?

functionalism

23

what is functionalism?

how mental processes function to adapt to changing environments.

24

what is gestalt psychology?

we have inborn tendencies to structure, these tendencies cause us to see things as broad perceptual units rather than individual sensations.

25

what is the main difference between structuralism and functionalism?

functionalism was based on the main belief that scientists should examine the purpose of consciousness

26

what was sigmand freud involved in?

many of our thoughts and feelings exist beyond the realm of awareness, focused on patients involved with histeria

27

what is the psychoanalytic theory and from did it originate from?

freud, mental processes are influenced by the competition among unconscious forces to come into awareness.

28

what is behaviourism?

psychology should only be studied on observable behaviours

29

what did behaviourists tend to focus on?

stimuli and responses

30

what idea did behaviourism bring on?

conditioning (associate stimuli with each other and respond the same way)