Flashcards in chapter 2 Deck (38)
what are the two essential beliefs when it comes to scientific principles?
the universe operates according to certain natural laws, such laws are discoverable and testable
what approach does the scientific method rely on?
deductive reasoning (reasoning from broad basic principles applied to scientific situations)
who was first to question deductive reasoning and why?
francis bacon, too bias
what is inductive reasoning?
reasoning proceeding from specific situations to general truths, avoids bias
what are empirical observations?
what builds on both inductive and deductive approaches?
hypothetico- deductive reasoning (scientists begin with an educated guess, then design small controlled observations)
what are the steps to the scientific method approach?
observations, hypothesis, test, build theory
what did german philosopher Emanuel kant suggest?
psychology is empirical and very close to real science
what was eugenics?
a social movement that improves the human race by encouraging reproduction with desirable traits.
what is pseudopsychology?
psychology can provide answers to all of lifes major questions
what is the main idea behind psychological research?
to isolate relative contribution factors and to think about how these factors come together to influence human behaviour.
what are the 6 steps psychologists use when conducting research?
1. identify questions of interest
2. develop testable hypothesis
3. select research method, participants and collect data
4. analyze data and accept or reject hypothesis
5. seek scientific review
6. develop theory
what is the difference between and independent and dependent variable?
factor in changing a condition or event, condition or event that changes as a result
what does it mean to operationalize variable?
working definition of a variable that allows you to test it
what is the best way to select a sample of people for research?
random selection (everyone in a population has equal chance of being involved)
what does random selection minimize?
what are descriptive research methods?
case studies, naturalistic observations, surveys
how is experimental research different from descriptive research?
involves manipulation and control of variables.
what are naturalistic observations?
observing people while they behave like they normally do. (more reflective on human behaviour) may be subject to research bias.
what is the hawthorne affect?
when people are being observed during study or at their work place they will preform better, because they are being watched or studied.
what is a disadvantage of a survey?
people don't always answer honestly, they answer according to what is socially acceptable. (participant bias)
what is the difference between the control group and the experimental group?
experimental group ( exposed to the independent variable)
control group (hasn't and wont be exposed to independent variable)
*(both measure change in dependent variable)
what is a demand characteristic?
an undesired affect in which the participants are unintentionally aware of the expected outcome
what is the double blind procedure?
neither the researcher or the participant knows the treatment being received.
what is a correlation?
a predictable relationship between two or more variables
what is used to express the strength and relationship between two variables?
correlation coefficient (-1 to +1)
what is the difference between positive and negative correlation?
(+)on average scores between two variables increase together, (-) scores on one variable increases while scores decrease on another
what is perfect correlation?
a score of either -1 or +1, two variables are exactly related
what is the most likely range for correlation in psychology?
0.3 and above