Chapter 15- Brain and Cranial Nerves Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15- Brain and Cranial Nerves Deck (69)
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1

brain regions

cerebrum
diencephalon
mesencephalon
cerebrum
pons
medulla oblongata

2

meninges: outer layer

dura mater
-forms internal periosteum of skull
no epidura

3

dura mater partitions

-falx cerebelli: separates right and left cerebellar hemispheres
-falx cerebri: separates right and left cerebral hemispheres
-tentorium cerebelli: separates lobes of cerebrum form cerebellum

4

2 other layers of meninges

arachnoid mater:
-spidery
-spreads over brain but doesnt extend into gooves and depressions
Pia mater:
-inner most
-aids in nourishing brain
-attached to surface of brain

5

ventricles

-spaces filled with CSF
-2 lateral ventricles
--connected by interventricular foramen to:
-3rd ventricle: connected by cerebral aqueduct to:
-4th ventricle: connected to central canal of spinal cord

6

cerebrospinal fluid functions

-cushions
-transport nutrients, wastes and othe chemicals
-support the brain

7

cerebrospinal fluid: formation

choroid plexus:
-lobes located in the ventricles
-consists of
--ependymal cells
--permeable capillaries
-CSF is taken from blood by ependymal cells and pooled in the ventricles

8

cerebrospinal fluid: movement

-CSF moves throughout the entire CNS
-originated in ventricles
-through apertures in the 4th ventricles to subarachnoid space
-through central canal
-around subarachnoid space

9

Cerebrospinal fluid: reabsorbed

in sagittal sinus
-a large venous tube within the dura mater
-extends along the midline of the cerebral hemispheres
-arachnoid extends into sinus through arachnoid granulations
-CSF goes back into the blood

10

cerebrum: functions

-interpret sensory impulses
-voluntary muscular movements
-memory
-reasoning process
-intelligence and personality

11

cerebral hemispheres

-2 hemispheres
-cnnected by corpus callosum
-separated by longitudinal fissure
-possess
--ridges-gyri
--grooves=sulci

12

hemisphere separation

-receives sensory and generates motor information to the OPPOSITE side of the body
-communication between the hemispheres allowed for by corpus callosum

13

cerebral gray mater

cell somas
-outer regions of cerebral lobes
-centralized in masses called basal nuclei

14

cerebral white mater

myelinated axons
-commissural fibers
-association fibers
-projection fibers

15

commissural fibers

connect corresponding gray areas on different hemispheres

16

association fibers

connect different parts of same hemisphere

17

projection fibers

connect cerebrum to lower brain areas

18

cerebral lobes

frontal
parietal
temporal
occipital
insula

19

cerebral lobes division

divided by special sulci
-central sulcus: separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe
-lateral sulcus: separates the parietal lobe from the tempoal
-parietal-occipital sulcus: separates the parietal lobe from the occipital

20

cerebral regions: primary motor cortex

Primary motor cortex
-anterior to central sulcus in frontal lobe
-conscious control of skeletal muscles
-learned motor skills
-speech and eye movements

21

cerebral regions: primary sensory cortex

-posterior to central sulcus on parietal lobe
-somatic sensory information from touch, pain, pressure
-monitor environment consciously

22

other sensory cortexs

visual cortex:
-occipital lobe
-sight
-photoreceptors
auditory cortex:
-temporal lobe
-sound
olfactory cortex:
-temporal lobe
-smell
gustatory cortex:
-insula and frontal lobe
-taste

23

cerebral regions: association areas

-one associated with most large motor or sensory cortexes
-somatic sensory
-somatic motor
-visual
-auditory
-recognize friend on phone (auditory), touch recognition

24

cerebral regions: high order integrative regions: prefrontal cortex

-meat of brain
-abstract intellectual function
-predictions, problem solving
-emotional context and motivation
-timing and temporal relationships
-removal=pre-frontal lobotomy
-see ppt for picture of area

25

cerebral regions: high order integrative regions: brocas speech center and general interpretive area

brocas:
-regulates breathing and vocalization
general interpretive area:
-interpretation of both written and verbal language
-sentence structure and word linkage
damage to either results in some sort of aphasia (speech blockage)

26

hemisphere dominance

higher order integrative regions may be different between hemispheres
-categorical hemisphere
--speech, writing, and general interpretive area
-representational hemisphere
--identification of familiar objects
--touch and spatial analysis
--emotional relevance
right handed people tend to have their categorical hemisphere on left, and vice versa

27

basal nuclei

-masses of gray matter deep in cerebral hemisphere
-act as relay station for motor impulses starting in cerebral cortex and passing to brain stem and spinal cord

28

types of basal nuclei

-claustrum
-lentiform nucleus
-caudate nucleus
-amygdaloid nucleus

29

claustrum

-focuses visual attention
-processes unconscious visual info

30

lentiform nucleus

controls and adjusts muscle tone

31

caudate nucleus

-massive head, slender tail
-maintains pattern and rhythm of movement

32

amygdaloid nucleus

-tip of caudate tail
-part of limbic system

33

diencephalon

-epithalamus
--pineal gland: produces melatonin
-posterior pituitary gland
-thalamus
-hypothalamus

34

thalamus

central to the cerebrum
two major bodies:
-divided by the third ventricle
-connected by a interthalamic adhesion

35

thalamus: function

part of limbic system:
-emotion, memory, learning
-conscious awareness of emotion
connect basal nuclei and cerebral cortex
-to each other
-to other parts of the CNS
sends sensory information to proper location within cerebrum

36

hypothalamus; location

below the thalamus
-above and connected to the posterior pituitary gland

37

hypothalamus: functions

-subconscious control of skeletal muscles
-coordinates autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic)
-the connection between the endocrine and nervous system
-directly produces hormones
-produces behavioral drives (emotions, hunger, thirst)
-regulates body temperature
-controls sleep patterns such as circadian rhythms

38

mesencephalon

-midbrain
-connects brain stem and spinal cord with higher areas
-act as relay centers
-contain cerebral aqueduct that connects 3rd and 4th ventricles
-parts:
-cerebral peduncles
-red nucleus
-substantia nigra
-corpora quadrigemina

39

cerebral peduncles

only connecting fibers and no nuclei
-motor fibers connecting the cortex to the spinal cord
-sensory fibers that synapse with the thalamus

40

red nucleus

-highly vascularized (hence red color)
-connects cerebrum and cerebellum
-controls:
-posture
-reflexes

41

substantia nigra

-controls and integrates the motor output of the basal nuclei
-produces dopamine (gives it a black color)
-deterioration may lead to parkinson's disease
--loss of control of voluntary motor function

42

corpora quadrigemina

-superior colliculi
--recieves visual input from thalamus
-inferior colliculi
--receives auditory input from medulla

43

pons

-rounded bulge on underside of brain stem
-separates midbrain from medulla
-masses of gray matter and nerve fibers
-relays impulses to and from medulla and cerebrum
-regulates depth of breathing
-rhythm of breathing, wakefullness, sleeping. comatose if damaged

44

cerebellum

below cerebrum
2 hemispheres:
-separated by falx cerebelli
-connected by vermis
mainly white matter
-arbor vitae

45

cerebellum: function

-integrates sensory information about the position of body parts
-coordinates muscle activities
-maintain posture
-fine tunes voluntary and involuntary movements

46

medulla oblongata

-from foramen magnum to pons
-a point of connection for several cranial nerves
-oval swelling=olivary nucleus

47

reflex centers of medulla oblongata

cardiovascular center
-adjusts blood flow and heart rate
respiratory rhythmicity center
-basic pace of respiratory movements

48

reticular formation (medulla)

-network of nerve fibers associated with islands of gray matter
- interconnects areas with fibers in all major tracts
-regulates motor activities
--Inc activity=wakefulness
--dec activity=sleep

49

limbic system

nuclei and tracts along the border of cerebrum and diencephalon

50

cerebrum limbic system

-limbic lobe: deep to all other lobes
-hippocampus: nuclei within the lobe
-amydaloid body: basal nucleus

51

diencephalon limbic system

-thalamus: relay center
-hypothalamus: behavioral drive center

52

medulla limbic system

reticular formation
-sleep and wakefulness

53

limbic system function

-establishes emotional states and related behavioral drives
-links intellectual functions of cortex to unconscious functions of lower brain
-facilitates memory storage

54

cranial nerves

-12 total
-all originate from brain stem except 1st pair
-cell bodies fro sensory found in ganglia outside brain
-cell bodies for motor found in gray matter
-pass through foramina in skull

55

cranial nerves general

- may look all disorganized in mammals
-are organized sequentially in fish and cephalochordates
-this is evidenced in a fetus as well

56

12 cranial nerves

1. olfactory
2. optic
3. oculomotor
4. trochlear
5. trigeminal
6. abducens
7. facial
8. vestibulocochlear
9. glossopharyngeal
10. vagus
11. accessory
12. hypoglossal

57

I

olfactory
-sensory (means sends signals up)
-smell
-passes through cribiform plate
-only sensation that does not go through the thalamus

58

II

optic
-sensory
-vision
-pass through the optic foramina

59

III

oculomotor
-motor (means sends signals down)
-move the majority of eye muscles

60

IV

-motor
-smallest pair
-superior oblique muscles of eye only

61

V

trigeminal
-mixed
-larges
-3 branches
--eye, tear gland and skin of ant. scalo, forehead and upper eyelid
--upper teeth, gum, lip and mucous lining of palate and skin of face
--scalp, skin of jaw, lower teeth, gum and lip; muscles of mastication

62

VI

abducens
-motor
-form pons
-lateral rectus eye muscles only

63

VII

facial
-mixed
-sensory: taste receptors on ant. 2/3 of tongue
-motor: to muscles of facial expression; stimulate tear and salivary glands

64

VIII

vestibulocochlear
-sensory
-auditory nerve from medulla
-2 parts
--sensitive to changes in position of head
--interpreted as hearing

65

IX

glossopharyngeal
-mixed
-sensory: form lining of pharynx, tonsils and post. 1/3 of tongue
-motor: to wall of pharynx to help swallowing

66

X

vagus
-mixed
-from medulla to chest and abdomen
-sensory from lining of pharynx, larynx and esophagus and abdomen
-somatic motor: to muscles of larynx--> speech and swallowing
-autonomic motor: to heart, other smooth muscles and glands in visceral organs

67

XI

-motor
2 branches
-cranial: from medulla to muscles of soft palate, pharynx and larynx
-spinal: sends motor fibers to trapezius and sternocleidomastoid

68

XII

hypoglossal
-motor
-from medulla to tongue
-for speaking, chewing and swallowing

69

cranial nerves mnemonic

Name: out on our table top are fruits very green veggies and hamburgers
Composition: some say marry money but my brother says big brains matter more