Chapter 24- The Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 24- The Respiratory System Deck (36)
1

upper respiratory system consists of

-nose, nasal cavity, sinuses and pharynx
-filter, warm, and humidify air and bring it to and from the..

2

lower respiratory system

-larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and
-alveoli-gas exchange surface

3

functions of respiratory system

-extensive area for gas exchange
-move air to and form exchange surface
-protect exchange surfaces from damage
--dehydration, temperature, pathogens, etc.
-produce vocalization
-regulate blood volume, pH, pressure, etc

4

3 key functional parameters

1. increase the surface area of the membrane
2. decrease thickness of the respiratory membrane
3. highly cascularize the repiratory membrane-maximize concentration gradient

5

external nose

-cartilage
--lateral nasal
--major and minor alar
-nasal bone
-external nares (nostrils)

6

nose

-encloses the nasal vestibule
--protected by hairs
--opens into nasal cavity
--divided by nasal septum

7

nasal cavity

-starts at nasal vestibule and ends at internal nares
-divided in two by the nasal septum
--ethmoid, vomer, septal cartilage
-separated from oral vaity
--hard palate: palatine and maxilla
--soft palate
-mucus membrane lining

8

nasal cavity: olfactory region

-superior region
-all areas with olfactory receptors
--cribiform plate, superior nasal conchae, superior septum

9

nasal cavity: conchae

-three projections of bone on each side
--superior, middle, inferior
-ethmoid and inferior nasal concha bone
-grooves in between conchae=meatuses

10

conchae functions

-divide cavity into passages
-suppoer mucous membranes
-increase surface area
-increase turbulence
--filters out airborne particles

11

sinuses

-air filled sacs within cranial bones
--maxilla, frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid
-open into nasal cavity
-lined with mucous membranes

12

functions of sinuses

-decrease weight of skull
-produce mucus
-resonant chambers

13

pharynx

throat
-shared passageway for respiratory and digestive system
-nasopharynx: above uvula and posterior to internal nares
-oropharynx
-laryngopharynx: between hyoid and esophagus

14

functions of pharynx

-passage for food
-passage for air
-sound production

15

layers of respiratory tree

-mucosa
--goblet cells in pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
-submucosa
--areolar CT and seroud mucous glands
-hylaline cartilage
-trachealis muscle
--transverse and longitudinal smooth muscle
--more muscle as one moves closer to the lungs

16

larynx

-enlargement in airway at top of trachea and below pharynx
--routes air and food to proper channels
--surrounds and protects glottis (opening into larynx
-houses vocal cords

17

composition of larynx

-muscles and cartilage held together by elastic tissue

18

cartilages of the larynx

-thryroid: adams apple
-cricoid: supports posterior larynx
-arytenoid, corniculate and cuneiform: attach and control vocal cords
-epiglottis: projects into pharynx and covers glottis during swallowing

19

vocal cords

-folds in mucous membrane
-vestibular folds
--false vocal cords
--no sound production
--muscles help close larynx during swallowing
-vocal folds
--true vocal cords
--cause sound production

20

vocal cords: speaking

-air pushed past vocal folds causes vibrations
-pitch controlled by changing tension of cords
--tight=high
-volume related to force of air over cords
--more force-loud
-oral cavity, lips and tongue change sound

21

trachea

-flexible tube
-connects larynx with bronchi

22

composition of trachea

-inner wall
--ciliated mucous membrane with goblet cells
---beat continuously
---expel mucous loaded with debris
--20 c-shaped pieces of hyaline cartilage

23

functions of trachea

-filter and direct incoming air
-cartilage rings prevent collapsing
--but are still flexible
-soft tissue in back allows esophagus to expand

24

bronchi

formed by division of trachea
-split at carina
-enter lungs at hilus
-bronchi subdivide into smaller and smaller branches
--primary
--secondary
--tertiary
--bronchioles

25

differences between bronchi sides

right bronchus
-is wider, shorter, and straighter
-divides into three parts; one for each lobe (left has 2)
-superior one divides very early

26

bronchioles

-tertiary bronchi branch many times
-eventually form 6500 terminal brochioles
-smooth muscle dominant and little cartilage
--bronchodialation (SNS)
--bronchoconstriction (PSNS)
-terminal brochioles branch into respiratory lobules
--50-80 per lobule
--branch into alveolar ducts

27

alveoli

-alveolar ducts lead to alveolar sacs
-alveolar sacs contain several alveoli
-150 million per lung
-each asscoiated with a network of capillaries
-abundance of elastic fibers

28

alveolus

consists of:
-pneumocyte type 1 cells
--simple squamous epithelium for gas exchange
--moist lining aids diffusion across respiratory membrne

29

pneumocyte type 2 cells

-no gas exchange
-secrete pulmonary surfactant
-fluid will be a lower cohesive force than water
-alveolar walls dont stick to each other
-prevents collapse of alveoli

30

alveolus consists of

-basal lamina
-capillary network
-connective tissue
--fibroblasts: elastic and reticular fibers
--macrophages: phagocytosis
-makes for a thin, flexible membrane

31

lungs

in thoracic cavity
-surrounded by 2 membranes
--parietal pleura
--visceral pleura
--pleural cavity in between

32

lungs: structure

-apex and base
-hilus
--all vessels and bronchi enter here
-lobes
--left= 2 lobes
--right=3 lobes
--fissures separate
-lobes divide into lobules

33

how breathing works

-depends on volume changes in thoracic cavity
-volume change leads to pressure change
-when pressure changes, gases flow in to equalize pressure
-2 phases
--inspiration
--expiration

34

inspiration

diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract
-thoracic cavity expands
-pressure in pleural cavity decreases
-lungs expand into lower pressure area
-pressure in lungs decreases
-air moves into lungs to equalize pressure

35

expiration

passive process
-muscles relax
-recoil shrinks thoracic cavity
-pressure in pleural cavity increases
-pressure in lungs increases
-air moves out to equalize pressure
this is known as tidal expiration

36

forced expriation

-internal intercostals, external obliques, and abdominal recti muscles contract
--further shrinks thoracic cavity
--pressure in pleural cavity increases
-lungs are compressed
--pressure in lungs increases
--air moves out to equalize pressure