Chapter 4- Integumentary System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4- Integumentary System Deck (79)
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1

2 components of the integumentary system

1. cutaneous membrane
2. accessory structures

2

Cutaneous membrane divided into..

epidermis
dermis

3

Ex. of accessory structures

-hair
-nails
-glands

4

Functions of Integumentary system

-protects deeper tissues from damage (mechanical, chemical, bacterial, desiccation, etc)
-aids in heat regulation
-airds in excretion of urea and uric acid
-synthesizes Vitamin D

5

Epidermis Characteristics

-stratified squamous epitherlium
-lacks blood vessels but can divide
-as new cells divide, push older ones to surface
-outer most layers are dead

6

Epidermal cell types

keratinocytes
melanocytes
langerhan cells
merkel cells

7

Keratinocytes

-epidermal
-90% of cells
-produce keratin
-provide protection

8

melanocytes

~8% of cells
-produces melanin pigments which protect against UV radiation
-melanin transferred to other cells with long cell processes

9

langerhan cells

-from bone marrow
-part of immune response

10

merkel cells

-in deepest layer
-form touch receptor with sensory neuron

11

What cells are produced at the basal lamina

keratinocytes by stem cells

12

what happens after keratinocytes are made

they are pushed towards surface
-fill with keratin and oils
-slowly die
-4 week journey

13

layers of epidermis

1. stratum germinativum
2. stratum spinosum
3. stratum granulosum
4. stratum lucidum
5. stratum corneum

14

Stratum germinativum

-deepest single layer of cells
-combination of merkel cells, melanocytes, keratinocytes and stem cells

15

How do stratum germinativum attach to basal lamina

desmosomes and hemidesmosomes

16

stratum spinosum

-8-10 cell layers held together by desmosomes
-melanin taken in by phagocytosis from nearby melanocytes
-during slide prep, cells shrink and look spiny

17

stratum granulosum

3-5 layers of flat dying cells
-show nuclear degeneration

18

what does stratum granulosum contain that are important for dessication?

contains dark staining keratohyalin granules
-release lipid that repels water

19

stratun lucidum

-seen in thick skin on soles and palms of feet only
-three to 5 layers of clear flat dead cells

20

stratum corneum

25-30 layers of flat dead cells filled with keratin and surrounded by lipids
-continuously shed
-barrier to heat, light, water, chemicals and bacteria

21

what layer do callus's form on and what causes them?

stratum corneum
-friction

22

Thick skin

-palmer and planter surface
-about 30 layers of S. corneum
-all 5 layers

23

thin skin

rest of body surfaces
-fewer layers of S. Corneum
-no S. lucidum

24

epidermal ridges

-stratum germinativum forms ridges that extend into the dermis
-increases area of contact for better grip

25

where is melanin produced

epidermis by melanoctes

26

melanin

same number of melanocytes in everyone but varying amounts of pigment
-melanin production is in response to melanin stimulation hormone
-UV in sunlight increases melanin production

27

what gets converted to melanin

melanocytes convert tyrosine

28

different types of melanin

-eumelanin-brown or black melanin
-pheomelanin-red brown version

29

What are freckles or liver spots

melanocytes in a patch

30

mole

benign localized overgrowth of melanocytes (nevus)

31

albinism

inherited lack of tyrosinase; no pigment

32

2 other skin pigments

-carotene
-hemoglobin

33

carotene

-dermis
-yellow-orange pigment (precursor of vit A)
-found in stratum corneum and subcutaneous

34

Hemoglobin

-red, oxygen carrying pigment in blood cells
-no other pigments present, epidermis is translucent so pinkness evident

35

how many layers in dermis

2 layers
-papillary layer
-reticular layer

36

papillary layer

areolar CT
-capillaries and neurons
-dermal papillae

37

reticular layer

-anchoring layer
-large vessels, nerves, adipocytes, arrector pili muscle
-dense irregular CT
-->collagen; strength
-->elastic: strength, flexibility

38

2 things that supply blood to the skin

-cutaneous plexus
-papillary plexus

39

cutaneous plexus

-network of arteries and veins supplying skin
-in subcutaneous layer

40

papillary plexus

-follows epidermal/dermal boundary
-helps nourish epidermal layer

41

stretch marks

-weight gain causes fibers to stretch (break)
-form due to decrease in fiber elasticity and tear

42

Hypodermis

-superficial fascia/subcutaneous layer
-made of areolar and adipose CT
-collagen and elastic fibers
-no distinct boudary in dermis
-adipose=insulator
-stabilizes skin

43

accessory structures: hair

-on most surfaces except plantar/palmer, parts of digits, lips, eyelids
-hair number fixed at birth

44

3 types of hair

1. vellus-peach fuzz
2. terminal-thicker with darker pigment
3. intermediate-arms

45

Hair consists externally of..

-shaft (above skin)
-root(deep into dermis)
-bulb(base of follicle)

46

hair consists internally of..

-cuticle (outermost portion)
-cortex (middle portion)
-medulla (innermost portion)

47

Functions of Hair

-protection
-reduction of heat loss (eh)
-sensing light touch (YES)

48

Root hair plexus

-sensory nerves surrounding follicle
-detect light touch
-detect hair movement

49

Arrector Pili

-smooth muscle
-moves hair
-causes goose bumps

50

3 stages of hair growth

1. anagen stage
2. catagen stage
3. telogen stage

51

anagen stage

-lasts from 2 to 6 years depending on body part
-matrix cells at base of hair root producing length

52

catagen stage

-lasts up to 2 weeks
-matrix cells inactive & follicle atrophies

53

telogen stage

-hair follicle remains dormant
-hair is eventually pushed out by new hair as cycle renews

54

hair color is result of..

melanin produced in melanocytes in hair bulb

55

2 types of hair color melanin

eumelanin-brown/black (large amounts, blonde is little)
-pheomelanin-red hair

56

4 exocrine glands of skin

-sebaceous (oil)
-sudoriferous (sweat)
-ceruminous (wax)
-mammary (milk)

57

oil gland

sebaceous

58

sweat gland

sudoriferous

59

wax gland

ceruminous

60

milk gland

mammary

61

sebaceous gland

-secretes sebum by holocrine secretion
-sebum decreases evap and decreases bacterial growth

62

2 types of sebaceous gland

-with hair: sebum into follicle
-w/o hair: sebum into epidermis

63

sudoriferous glands

-coiled tubular gland
-sweat released by merocrine secretion
-neural control

64

2 types of sedoriferous gland

-apocrine
-eccrine

65

Eccrine sweat gland

-greatest on palm
-not associated with hair follicle
-sensible persperation (water, NaCl, urea)
-cooling, excretion, protection

66

Apocrine sweat glands

-not actually apocrine
-assoc. w/hair follicles
-located in axillae/groin
-viscous secretion from puberty
-reduce friction, cooling, secrete phermones

67

modified apocrine sweat glands

-mammary-milk
-ceruminous-external ear (secretion mixes with sebum=ear wax)

68

Nail structure

-nail body
-nail bed
-nail root
-lunula

69

nail body

keratinized, plate-like structure

70

nail bed

-surface of skin that covers nail body

71

nail root

source of nail production

72

lunula

whitish, half moon region at base of nail plate

73

what are burns

tissue damage & cell death caused by heat, electricity, UV radiation or chemicals

74

associated dangers of Burns

-dehydration
-electrolyte imbalance
-circulatory shock

75

first degree burn

skin red and swollen, only damaged epidermis

76

second degree burn

skin red with blisters; epidermis and upper dermis damaged

77

third degree burn

gray-white or black; destroys entire layer

78

critical burns

-25% of body has 2nd degree
-10% of body has 3rd

79

effects of aging

-less hair
-reduced blood supply
-dermis thins
-drying of epidermis
-fewer melanocytes