Chapter 5-Skeletal System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5-Skeletal System Deck (73)
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1

2 types of bone tissue

-compact(dense smooth bone)
-spongy(bone with open spaces within)

2

Components of Skeletal system

-cartilage
-bone
-tendons
-ligaments

3

functions of skeletal system

-protection
-support (rigid structure)
-movement (bones as levers)
-storage (ca, P, fat)
-blood cell protection

4

cartilage consists of

-cells
extracellular matrix

5

cells in cartilage

chondrocytes found in compartments called lacunae

6

extracellular matrix

-collagen/elastic fibers
-ground substance of chondrotin sulfates

7

types of cartilage

hyaline
elastic
fibrocartilage

8

why does cartilage heal slowly?

no arteries, veins or lymphocytes

9

hyaline cartilage

-most common
-made up of chondrocytes, chondrotin sulfate, some collagen

10

location of hyaline cartilage

embryonic skeleton, articular surfaces, respiratory passages, nasal septum, between ribs and sternum

11

elastic cartilage

-flexible
-structure: chondrocytes, chondrotin sulfate, densely packed elastic fibers
-location: auricle, tip and lateral walls of nose, epiglottis

12

fibrocartilage

-very strong
-structure: chondrocytes, chondrotin sulfate, densely packed collagen fibers
-location: intervertebral disc, public symphysis, articular cartilage in knee

13

perichondrium

-fibrous connective tissue
-surrounds cartilage
-provides support and protection; new chondrocytes

14

perichondrium location

hyaline cartilage and elastic cartilage

15

absent form perichondrium

articular surfaces and fibrocartilage

16

layers of perichondrium

-outer: binds cartilage to adjacent tissues; provides support and protection
-inner: for growth and maintenance

17

apposition growth

-starts in perichondrium
-mesenchymal cells at periphery form in inner layer of perichondrium
-mesenchyme move towards matrix to become chondrogenic cells

18

how are chondrocytes formed from apposition growth

-chondrogenic cells aggregate and become chondroblasts
-chondroblasts secrete matrix-force cells apart
-chondroblasts become enclosed in matrix and become chondrocytes

19

interstitial growth

-chondrocytes enclosed in matrix and divide
-as the move apart, matrix forms between them
-growth of cartilage from within

20

osseous tissue

-supportive CT
-contains specialized cells
-solid extracellular matrix
---osteoid (organic portion, protein fibers)
---ground substance (Ca salts)
---water

21

osteoprogenitor

-bone cell
-mesenchymal cells
-predecessor to osteroblasts
-play role in initial growth and fracture repair

22

osteoblasts

-derived from osteogenic cells
-secrete osteoid
-common in growing bone
-predecessor to osteocytes
-more osteoblasts=stronger bone

23

osteocytes

-mature cells
-exist within bone matrix
-maintain Ca and PO4 homeostasis
-found in spaces called lacunae

24

osteoclasts

-involved in osteolysis (bone break down)
-increase osteoclast activity=weaker bone
-very large
-formed from fusion of many white blood stem cells

25

bone matrix is composed of...

Inorganic material
-65%
-brittle salts
--mostly hydroxyapatite
Osteoid
-orgaic
-35%
-flexible fibers (collagen, glycoproteins, proteoglycans

26

2 types of bone

compact bone
-arranged in osteons
spongy bone
-arranged in trabeculae

27

compact bone osteocytes communicate how?

osteocytes
-osteocytes communicate through canaliculi that radiate outward and connect one cell to the next cell

28

osteons

a unit of compact bone
-concentric lamellae of matrix surrounding acentral canal
-contains blood vessels and nerves

29

how are osteons connected to each other

perforating canals

30

3 types of lamellae

-concentric
interstitial
circumferential