Chapter 3-Tissues and Early Embryology Flashcards Preview

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1

4 basic tissue types

epithelial, connective, muscle, neural tissue

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Epithelial tissue characteristics

1. covers all body surfaces
2. cellularity
3. polarity
4. attachment
5. avascularity
6. regeneration

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Functions of Epithelia cells

1. physical protection
2. control permeability (absorption)
3. sensation
4. secretion

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Epithelial cellularity

very little space
-no matrix
-connected by junctions
-may contain fluids (stomach lining)

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Avascularity of Epithelial cells

no blood vessels found within epithelial tissues
-nutrients are supplied from blood in underlying tissue

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Basal side of epithelial tissue

grows off a basal lamina

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lateral side of epithelial tissue

contacts adjacent cells
-cell junctions

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apical side of epithelial cells

-exposed to lumen
-specializations
--microvilli, cilia

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Basal Lamina of Epithelial cells

-Divided into lamina lucida (clear layer) and Lamina densa (dense layer)
-exists on top of connective tissue

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3 layers of epithelial

simple
pseudostratified
stratified

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simple epithelial

secretion/absorption

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pseudostratified epithelium

nuclei found at different levels so it looks multilayered

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stratified epithelium

protection

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Epithelial cell shape

-squamous (cells are flattened)
-cuboidal (cells are usually cube shaped or hexagons)
-columnar-cells are tall and cylindrical
-transitional-shape changes

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simple squamous structure

one layer thin flat cells

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simple squamous function

absorption, diffusion, reduce friction

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simple squamous location

serous membranes, blood vessels, lungs, kidney tubules

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Simple Cuboidal structure

one layer, hexagonal box shaped cells

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simple cuboidal function

absorption, secretion, limited protection

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simple cuboidal location

glands, ducts, kidney tubules

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simple columnar structure

one layer, hexagonal column shaped cells

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simple columnar function

protection, absorption, secretion

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simple columnar location

stomach, intestine, gall bladder, uterine tubes

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pseudostratified columnar structure

one layer, multi-shaped cells, nuclei at varied heights

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pseudostratified columnar function

protection, secretion

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pseudostratified columnar

respiratory tract, male reproductive tract

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stratified squamous structure

-thin, flat, irregular cells
-multiple layers

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stratified squamous function

protects against frequent abrasion

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stratified squamous location

skin, mouth, throat, esophagus, rectum, anus, vagina

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stratified cuboidal structure/ function/location

multiple layered, hexagonal shaped boxes
-secretion
-rare; sweat gland ducts

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stratified columnar structure/function/location

-multiple layers, hexagonal, column shaped cells
-protection, secretion
-rare; pharynx, epiglottis, anus, glands

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transitional structure/function/location

multiple layers, can change shape
-expansion and recoil without tearing
-urinary bladder, renal pelvis

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what is a gland

when epithelial cells aggregate together to produce a specific product

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exocrine gland

secrete products into ducts that open on a surface

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endocrine gland

secrete products into tissue fluid or blood

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exocrine gland cellularity

unicellular-single cell; goblet cell
multicellular-secretory sheets, multicellular simple gland, multicellular compound gland

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exocrine secretory sheets

one large sheet covering a surface
-rarely have ducts or pockets
ex. stomach lining

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exocrine simple glands

-one distinct duct with outpocketing
-defined by number and shapes of pockets

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pockets of exocrine multicellular simple glands

tubular: elongate
coiled: winds
Alveolar: lobed

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divisions of simple exocrine glands

simple tubular (intestinal glands)
-simple coiled tubular (merocrine sweat glands)
-simple branched tubular (gastric glands, mucous glands of toung)
-simple alveolar (found in development of branched glands)
-simple branched aveolar (subaceous glands)

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multicellular compound glands

many distinct ducts with outpocketing
-tubular, coiled, alveolar, tubuloalveolar

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Classification of Exocrine glands

functionally classified based on how secretions are released
1. merocrine glands
2. apocrine gland
3. holocrine glands

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merocrine glands

Ex. salivary glands
-secrete product by exocytosis
-vesicles within cytoplasm bring product to the surface

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apocrine glands

ex. mammary glands
-pinching off of cell portion
-product is within this portion

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holocrine glands

ex. sebaceous glands
-product accumulates in cytosol
-cell ruptures and becomes the product

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Connective tissue traits

1. most abundant
2. multiple functions
3. spread apart
4. able to reproduce
5. well nourished; good blood supply
6. vary in structure

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Connective tissue is derived from what?

Mesenchymal cells
-stem cells that differentiate into multitude of cell types in all connective tissue

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Where doesnt connective tissue occur?

free surfaces

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except for cartilage and tendons, connective tissue has what?

good blood and nerve supply

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Connective tissue is composed of what?

1. extracellular matrix
--secreted by cells, has protein fibers, ground substance (consistency from liquid to gel to solid)
2. cells
--produce the matrix, rarely touch

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connective tissue functions

1. bind structures
2. support and protection
3. fill spaces
4. store fat
5. produce blood
6. repair damage
7. protect against infection
8. transport fluids and dissolved materials

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what is connective tissue proper (CTP)

connective tissue with cells and fibers in gel like ground substance
-loose connective tissues (areolar, adipose, reticular)
-dense connective tissues (regular, irregular, elastic)

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Major Cell type CTP: Fixed Cell

-fixed cells
-mesenchymal
-fibroblasts (produce protein fibers
-fixed macrophages (white blood cells that consume damaged cells and invaders
-adipocytes (fat cells)
-melanocytes (produce melanin

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Major Cell Type CTP: wandering cell

-free macrophages (what blood cells consume damaged cells and invaders)
-other white blood cells (secrete histamine; produce antibodies; consume damaged cells/invaders)

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Major Fiber Type CTP: Collagen Fiber

-25% of protein in body
-arranged into thick fibers
-tough, resistant to pull, pliable
-formed from protein collagen
-found in bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments

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Major Fiber type of CTP: Elastic Fiber

Formed from proteins elastin and fibrillin
-smaller diameter fibers than collagen
-rubbery, resilient
-can stretch up to 150% of relaxed length
-found in lungs, blood vessels, skin

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Major fiber types of CTP: reticular fibers

formed from protein collagen as well
-thin, branched fibers that form framework of organs
-spleen and lymph nodes, basal lamina

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Types of Cellular CTP

1.fixed cell
2.wandering cell

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Types of fiber CTP

1. collagen
2. elastic
3. reticular

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Areolar CTP: Structure

loosely arranged fibers, mast cells, macrophages, fibrocytes, adipocytes

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Areolar CTP: function

hold skin to underlying organs; fill spaces between muscles

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Areolar CTP: location

digestive, repiratory and urinary tracts, nerves and joints, around and between skeletal/smooth muscles; hypodermis of skin

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Adipose CTP: structure and function

-mostly adipocytes
-cushions joints, insulation, store energy, support

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Adipose CTP: location

hypodermis, between muscles, around kidney, behind eye, joints, abdominal membrane, surface of heart

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Reticular CT: Structure

fibroblasts, reticular fibers in 3-D web

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Reticular CT: function

support tissue in walls of organs

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Reticular CT: Location

Lymphoid organs, liver and spleen

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dense regular CT:structure

many collagen fibers densely packed, parallel, little open space

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dense regular CT: function

reinforces structures in one direction

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Dense regular CT: location

tendons and ligaments

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Dense Irregular CT: structure

same as regular except no pattern

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dense irregular CT: function

reinforces in several directions

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dense irregular CT: location

dermis, joint capsules, capsules of organs

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elastic CT: structure

elastic fibers in parallel strands or branched networks; fibroblasts

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elastic CT: locations

between vertebrae, walls of hollow organs

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Elastic CT: functions

provide elasticity

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Fluid Connective tissue

-blood
-lymph (interstitial fluid being transported in lymphatic vessels

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Fluid Connective Tissue: blood

-connective tissue with liquid matrix (plasma)
-cell types= erythrocytes, leukocytes (white), platelets (cell fragments)
-provide clotting, immune functions, carry O2 and CO2

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Supporting Connective Tissue

provide a framework that supports the rest of the body
-ex. cartilage, bone

80

membranes

made of epithelial and connective tissue
-form barriers
-cover and protect

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mucous membranes

-lines passageways; open to exterior
-moistened by mucous
-contain areolar tissue
ex: respiratory passages, mouth, digestive tract

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serous membrane

-simple squamous mesothelium; secretes watery fluid
-location: lining of pleural cavity, abdominopelvic cavity, scrotal cavity and pericardical cavity

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cutaneous membrane

-skin
-covers body surface
-thick
-waterproof
-dry

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synovial membrane

-in joint cavities
-produces synovial fluid
-lubricates joints
-promotes smooth movement

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Types of membranes

1. mucous membrane
2. serous membrane
3. cutaneous membrane
4. synovial membrane

86

outer layer of connective tissue

superficial fascia
-areolar and adipose tissue layer
-sits deep to cutaneous membrane (skin)

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middle layer of connective tissue framework

deep fascia
-dense CT sheets
-binds to tendons, ligaments, capsules, and bones
-deep to superficial fascia

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bottom layer of connective tissue

subserous fascia
-areolar CT sheet
-binds to serous membranes
-deep to deep fascia

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General characteristics of muscle tissue

-contractile
-elastic
-extensible
-excitable

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types of muscle tissue

1. skeletal
2. cardiac
3. smooth

91

skeletal muscle: structure

large cylindrical muscle fibers, multinucleated, striated, has satellite cells

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skeletal muscle: function

voluntary control of skeleton, controls opening into digestive system, heat generation

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skeletal muscle: location

skeletal muscles (with connective/nervous tissue)

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cardiac muscle: structure

unicellular branched cariocytes, uninucleate, striated, involuntary

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cardiac muscle: function

heartbeat

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smooth muscle: structure

short tapered cells, uninucleated, non-striated, involuntary, can divide and regenerate

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smooth muscle: location

lines tracts, BV's and hollow organs

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smooth muscle: function

involuntary control of respiratory, digestive, and circulatory systems

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nervous tissue cell types

-neurons (transmit impulse for cell communication)
-neuroglia (support, nourish and protect neurons)