Chapter 27- Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 27- Reproductive System Deck (48)
1

function of reproductive system

-produce some reproductive hormones
-produce gametes
-facilitate fertilization
-provide nutrients and gestate fetus
-provide nutrients for newborn

2

functions of male reproductive system

-produce and maintain gametes
-transport gametes into female for fertilization
-secrete sex hormones

3

testes

-suspended by a spermatic cord within scrotum
--produce sperm
--produce male sex hormones
---adrogens such as testosterone

4

actions of testosterone

-fetal development
--stimulate formation of reproductive organs
--stimulate descents of testis
-puberty
--stimulate development of secondary sex characteristics
--increase cellular metabolism
--increase production of RBC
--stimulate sexual activity

5

scrotum

-pouch of skin inferior to perineum
-each testis occupies a scrotal cavity
-tunica vaginalis: serous membrane surrounding each testis
-dartos muscle: wrinkling of scrotum
-cremaster mucles
--elevation of testes closer to body
--keeps them at a lower temperature

6

spermatic cord

vessels extend through inguinal canal
-ductus deferens
-gentiofemoral nerve
-differential artery
-testicular artery
-pampiniform veins

7

histology of testes

-lobules
--compartments housing seminiferous tubules
--separated from one another by the tunica albuginea

8

lobules cont. (more detailed)

-800 coiled tubes
-each straightens into a straight tubule
-straight tubules meets a maze called the rete testis
-interstitial cells
--in between the tubules
--produce testosterone

9

spermatogenesis

-the process where sperm cells are made
--occurs in the seminiferous tubules
--meiosis occurs midway through this process
---results in haploid sperm

10

spermatogenesis: nurse cells

-stimulated by FSH and testosterone
-support the growth of sperm
-maintain blood testes barrier
-produce the hormone inhibin
--represses FSH

11

spermatogenesis: stages

1. spermatogonia
2. primary spermatocyte
3. secondary spermatocyte
4. spermatid
5. spermatozoa

12

structure of a sperm

-head
--acrosome: vesicular compartment containing enzymes to penetrate oocyte
-neck
-middlepiece: many mitochondria
-tail: a flagella

13

epididymis

-lies on posterior boarder of testes
-has a:
--head
--body
--tail

14

epididymis: functions

-spermatozoa go from testes directly to epididymis
-recycles damaged spermatozoa
-stores spermatozoa and matures them (takes about 2 weeks)

15

ductus deferens

-aka vas deferens
-moves out of scrotum and around bladder posterior
-enlarges at the base
--ampulla
--peristalsis may occur
-merges with the seminal vesicles
--becomes an ejaculatory duct

16

seminal vesicles

-first of three glands that contribute to semen
-posterior to bladder
-secretion:
--60% of semen volume
--fructose
--prostoglandins
--clotting factors
-causes sperm to become motile

17

prostate gland

-muscular, rounded organ, 4 cm diameter
-inferior to bladder
-surrounds urethra
-secretion
--antibiotic
--seminalplasmin

18

bulbourethral

-found in the urogenital diaphragm
-secretion
--thick, alkaline mucus

19

penis: erectile tissue

-made of two sets of erectile tissue:
1. corpora cavernosa: two cylindrical masses with a central artery
2. corpus spongiosum: one mass that houses the urethra
-both tissues fill with blood to achieve erection due to parasympathetic stimulation

20

penis: regions

-root: corpora cavernosa that extends to the ischial rami
-body:
--tubular
--consist of all erectile tissues
-glans:
--enlarged, distal portion of corpus spongiosum
--covered by flap of skin

21

urethra: three parts (male)

1. prostatic urethra
-runs through prostate
2. membranous urethra
-through urogenital diaphragm
3. spongy urethra
-through corpus spongiosum
-exit at external urethral orifice

22

female system: functions

-produce and maintain sex cells
-transport sex cells to site of fertilization
-provide favorable environment for developing offspring
-move offspring to outside
-produce female sex hormones

23

ligaments

keep the system in place
-broad ligament: endoses superior internal structures
-ovarian ligament: ovary to uretus
-suspensory ligament: ovary to pelvic wall
-uterosacral ligament: inferior uterus to sacrum

24

ovaries

-paired organs at the lateral walls of pelvic cavity
-receive blood from ovarian arteries and veins
-covered by:
--germinal epithelium
--tunica albiginea
-house the gametes

25

Oogenesis

egg development occurs throughout a females life
1. oogonium: develops before birth
2. primary oocyte: develops just before ovulation
4. ovum: occurs only during fertilization

26

ovarian cycle (early follicle development)

-all follicles start as small primordial follicles
-during the ovarian cycle, one of these will develop into a primary follicle
--grows granulosa cells
--starts to produce estrogens

27

ovarian cycle cont. (later follicle development

-primary follicle enlarges and matures into a mature follicle
--primary oocyte becomes a secondary oocyte
--granulosa cells increase in number
--a fluid filled antrum forms
--making even more estrogen

28

ovarian cycle: ovulation

-ovulation occurs
--secondary oocyte is released
-the remaining follicle now develops into a corpus luteum
--makes both progesterone and estrogen

29

ovarian cycles: corpus albicana

-if fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum remains
--continue to produce progesterone and estrogen
-if not, it will deteriorate into the corpus albicans (a knot of connective tissue), and eventually disappears
--hormone levels drop
--cycle begins again

30

uterine tubes: regions

-infundibulium:
--expanded end
--fimbriae: finger like extensions
-ampulla
--intermediate portion
-isthmus
--narrow section

31

uterine tubes: general

-consist of smooth muscle and ciliated epithelium
-cilia beat when ovulation occurs
-oocyte has a 3-4 day trip
--fertilization must occur during the first half of this trip

32

uterus

-small and pear shaped
-sits on top of the bladder
-most women have it anteflexed
--20% have retoflexed

33

uterus: major sections

-fundus
-body
--uterine cavity
-cervix:
--internal os
--cervical canal
--external os

34

uterine wall

-perimetrium: incomplete outer visceral peritoneum
-myometrium:
--muscular layer
--1.5 cm thick
-endometrium

35

uterine wall: edometrium

-glandular inner layer
--functional layer
--basilar layer
-functional layer is shed and the basil layer survives during menses

36

uterine cycle phases

1. menses
2. proliferative
3. secretory

37

menses phase

-caused by a drop in estrogen and progesterone due to the corpus albicans
-arteries constrict
-secretory tissues and glands begin to die
-functional layer is sloughed off

38

proliferative phase

-caused by the production of estrogen by the follicle
-basal epithelium multiplies
-glands regrow
-lasts until ovulation

39

uterine cycle: secretory phase

-caused by progesterone and estrogen released by the corpus luteum
-endometrial glands enlarge
-arterial elongation
-peaks at 12 days after ovulation
--will persist with pregnancy
--will deteriorate when corpus albicans occurs

40

vagina: composition

-stratified squamous epithelium, smooth muscles, elastic fibers
-rugae
-cervix projects into the vaginal canal
-exits to the outside
--hymen: an epithelial fold that partially blocks the entrance

41

vagina: function

-passageway for the elimination of menstual fluids
-receive penis and hold spermatozoa
-lower portion of the birth canal

42

female external organs: vulva and labia minora

-vulva: the external genital area
-labia minora
--smooth, hairless, skin flaps surrounding the vestibule, which contains the
1. uretral opening
2. vaginal entrance

43

female external organs: clitoris

-erectile tissue
-surrounded by a prepuce
-the outer vulva is made up the the fleshy mons pubis and labia majora

44

mammary glands: locaiton

-found within pectoral fat pads in the subcutaneous tissue
-supported by suspensory ligaments

45

mammary glands: lobes

-produce milk
-milk moves through lactiferous ducts and is stored in lactiferous sinuses

46

mammary glands: exit

-milk exits through nipple
--surrounded by areola

47

hormones that trigger milk production

-PRL, GH, and human placental lactogen (HGL) cause milk production
-oxytocin stimulates smooth muscle contraction and ejection

48

development of mammary glands

-children: male and female are similar
-puberty:
--male glands fail to develop
--females develop due to ovarian hormones
---alveolar glands and ducts enlarge
---fat deposited