Chapter 8- Articulations Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Chapter 8- Articulations > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 8- Articulations Deck (62)
0

articulations

joints
-hold bones together but may permit movement
-point of contact between 2 bones, between cartilage and bone and between teeth and bones

1

arthrology

study of joints

2

kinesiology

study of motion

3

classification of joints based on movement

-synathrosis=immovable
-amphiarthrosis=slightly
-diarthrosis=freely

4

class. based on anatomy

-fibrous=collagen fibers
-cartilaginous=cartilage
-synovial=joint capsule and accessory ligaments
whats in between the joints

5

fibrous joints

-lack synovial cavity
-bones held closely together by fibrous connective tissue
-little or no movement
Types of fibrous joints: sutures, syndesmosis, gomphosis

6

sutures

thin layer of dense fibrous connective tissue unites bones of skull
-immovable
-if fused completely in adults=syntosis

7

syndesmosis

-fibrous joint
-bones united by ligament
-slightly movable
-anterior tibiofibular joint and interosseous membrane as EX.

8

gomphosis

-ligament hold cone-shaped peg in bony socket
-immovable
-teeth in alveolar processes of maxillae or mandible
-something else shoved into bone with ligament as protection

9

cartilage joints

-lacks synovial cavity
-allows little-no movement
-bones tightly connected by fibrocartilage or hyaline cartilage
-2 types
--synchondroses
-sympheses

10

synchondrosis

-connecting material is hyaline cartilage
-immovable
-epiphyseal plate or joints between ribs and sternum
-when fusion occurs it becomes synostosis

11

symphysis

-fibrocartilage is connecting material
-slightly movable
-intervertebral discs and pubic symphysis
-built to cushion
-resist compression+tension

12

synovial jint: features

-2 bones separated by fluid filled cavity
- joint capsule has 2 layers
--synovial membrane
--articular cartilage

13

synovial fluid components and functions

no blood vessels
components
-blood filtrate
-hyalurnic acid
-glycoproteins
synovial fluid functions
-lubricate joint surface
-nourish chondrocytes
-shock absorber

14

synovial joint:accessory structures: ligaments

ligaments
-reinforce and strengthen joint capsule
-connect bone to bone with dense regular connective tissuel

15

ligament types

extracapsular ligaments
-outside joint capsule (collaterals) ex=tcl
intracapsular ligaments
-wth capsule (cruciates) ex=acl

16

synovial joint: accessory structure:articular discs

-pads of fibrous cartilage that subdivide a cavity
-also known as menisci
-ex. ulnolunate joint; knee joint

17

articular disc funtions

channel flow of synovial fluid
-modify articular surfaces
-restrict movements at joint
-cushion articulating surfaces
-help distribute body weight

18

synovial joint: accessory structures: fat pads

-adipose tissue surrounding the synovial capsule

19

fat pad functions

protect articular cartilage
-packing material
-fills spaces when joint changes shape

20

synovial joint: accessory structures: bursae function, location, what is it

-small fluid filled pockets of connective tissue
-location: hypodermis; between tendons/ligaments and bones
-function: cushion and support; aid movement of tendons
-connective tissue bag with synovial like fluid inside, reduce friction, aids movement

21

types of movement: gliding

-two opposing surfaces slide past one another
-same angle/orientatio the whole time

22

circumduction movement

-type of angular motion
-rotation of the shaft while changing the angle
-ex: humerus+scapula
-circle

23

angular motion

-a change in angle between the shaft and articular surface
-no movement, just angle changing

24

rotation

spinning of the shaft without changing the angle
-ex: atlas and axis

26

types of angular movement

-abduction-away from midline
-adduction-towards midline
-flexion-foward movement from lateral view, reduce angle between two bones
-extension-decrease angle between two bones
-hyperextension-past angle of movement, injury based sometimes

27

types of rotation

-supination (anatomical position of hands, palm up)
-pronation= flipping hand palm down

28

Special Movements

-Eversion (ankle ouwards)
-Inversion (ankle inwards)
-dorsiflexion (ankle up/flexed)
-plantar flexion (ankle down/extended)
-lateral flexion (ear to shoulder)
-protraction (chin thrust forward)
-Retraction (chin thrust back)
-opposition (thumb to pinky)
-elevation (jaw closed)
-depression (jaw opening)

29

synovial joints

-trade off between flexibility and stability
due to:
-shape of articular surfaces
-tightness of ligaments
-presence of accessory ligaments
-other factors: other bones, muscles, fat pads

30

types of synovial joints

-plane
-hinge
-pivot
-condlar
-saddle
-ball-and-socket

31

plane joint

-bone surfaces are flat or slightly curved
-side to side movement only
-rotation prevented by ligaments
-ex:sternoclavicular joint

32

hinge joint

-convex surface of one bone fits into concave surface of 2nd bone
-uniaxial like a door hinge
--knee, elbow, ankle

33

movements produced by hinge joint

-flexion (decrease joint angle)
-extension (increasing the angle)
-hyperextension (opening joint beyond anatomical position

34

pivot joint

rounded surface of bone articulates with ring formed by second bone and ligament
-ex= proximal radioulnar joint (supination/pronation)
-atlanto-axial joint (turning head "no")

35

condylar joint

-oval shaped projection fits into oval depression
-biaxial=flex/extend or abduct/aduct is possible
-ex=wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints (2-5)

36

saddle joint

-one bone saddle shaped, other bone fits as a person would in saddle
-biaxial
-circumduction allows tip of thumb travel in circle
-opposition allows tip of thumb to touch tip of fingers
-ex=trapezius of carpus and metacarpal of thumb

37

ball-and-socket joint

-ball fitting into a cuplike depression
-multiaxial
ex= shoulder joint
-hip joint

38

types of motion for ball and socket

-flexion/ extension
-abduction/adduction
-rotation

39

temporomandibular joint

TMJ
-hinge joint
-between condylar process of mandle and madibular fossa
-condyles slide back and forth along joint socket
-2 synovial joints

40

intervertebral articulations: facets of articulation (where)

-vertebrae articulate at superior and inferior articular processes
-plane joint
-restricts lateral movement

41

intervertebral articulations; discs (what are they, made of what)

-allows flexion, extension, lateral flexion and rotation

42

anulus fibrosus

fibrocartilage in joints of vertebrae

43

nucleus pulposus

nucleus inbetween vertebrae and inside cartilage
-made of water (75%)
-hyaluronic acid
-reticular and elastic fibers

44

intervertebral articulations: herniated disc

-slipped disc
-nucleus pulposus breaks through annulus fibrosus
-movements of vertebral column compresses nucleus

45

shoulder joint

-glenohumeral joint
-head of humerus meets glenoid cavity
-gelnoid cavity covered by glenoid labrum
-ring of dense irregular connective tissue attached to margin of glenoid cavity

46

elbow joint

-two joints: humerus and ulna (hinge, flexion/extension)
-humerus and radius (pivot, pronation/supination)

47

wrist and hand joints

radiocarpal joint
intercarpal joints
capometacarpal joints
metacarpophalangeal joints
-interphalangeal joints

48

radiocarpal joint

-radius and 3 proximal carpels
-flexion/extension
-abduction/adduction
-circumduction

49

intercarpal joints

sliding

50

carpometacarpal joints

-thumb (saddle)
-other digits (plane=sliding)

51

metacarpophalangeal joints

hand to fingers (condylar)
-adduction/abduction
-flexion/extension

52

interphalangeal joints

fingers (hinge)
-flexion/extension

53

hip joint

-femoral head meets acetabulum of pelvis
-ball and socket
-labrum extends the size of the acetabulum

54

knee joint must..

-this joint must
1. support body mass
2. have 160 degrees motion
3. be unobstructed by muscle (like hip)
-lack strong yet limiting ligaments (like ankle)

55

knee joints

tibiofemoral joint
-hinge (flexion/extension, some rotation)
patellofemoral joint
-plane (sliding)

56

ankle joints

ankle (talocrural joint)
-tibiotalar
-tibiofibular
-fibulotalar
dorsi/plantiflexion

57

foot joints

-intertarsal
-tarsometatarsal
-metatarsophalageal
-interphalangeal

58

intertarsal

plane joints between tarsals

59

tarsometatarsal

-plane joints between tarsals and metatarsals

60

metatarsophalangeal

-condylar joints between metatarsals and digits

61

interphalangeal

-hinge joints in digits

62

Types of fibrous joints

Sutures
Syndesmosis
Gomphosis