Chapter 20-Blood Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Chapter 20-Blood > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 20-Blood Deck (41)
1

Introduction to blood

-~5L of blood in body
-blood is connective tissue
--cells=formed elements
--matrix=plasma

2

basic functions of blood

-transport materials
--nutrients, oxygen, metabolic wastes
--specialized cells that defend tissues
-help maintain stable cellular environment

3

blood plasma

-55% of blood volume
functions:
-transport nutrients, gases and vitamins
-regulate fluid and electrolytes
-maintain pH

4

composition of blood plasma

-water: 92
-proteins: 7
-solutes: 1

5

blood plasma differs from interstitial fluid

-greater O2 concentration
-reduced CO2 concentration
-significantly more dissolved proteins

6

solutes

waste:
-urea
-ammonia
electrolytes
-Na+,K+, Mg+ etc
organic nutrients:
-lipids
-glucose
-amino acids

7

plasma proteins

albumin
globulin
fibrinogen

8

albumin

-60%
-smallest
-maintains osmotic pressure of blood
-controls blood volume
-transports fatty materials in blood
-globulins

9

globulins

-35%
-immunoglobulins: antibodies
-transport globulins:
--transport compounds by binding to them
--prevent filtering by kidneys

10

fibrinogen

4%
-blood clotting
-without these, plasma is known as serum

11

erythrocytes

red blood cells
40% of blood
-value known as hematocrit
-99.9% of all formed elements

12

erythrocyte structure

biconcave discs
-thin central region
-thick outer region
-large surface area/volume ratio
-anucleate: most organelles absent (no nucleus)
allows passage through capillaries
-forms rouleaux
-flexible

13

hemoglobin

-280 million molecules/cell
-95% of RBC proteins
-structure:
-4 polypeptide subunits
-one heme group per polypeptide
-one iron per heme group
-1 molecule O2 per iron

14

function of hemoglobin

-each Fe carries one O2
--oxyhemoglobin is bright red
-the reaction is easily reversed
--deoxyhemogolbin is deep red/maroon color
-CO2 can also bind to hemoglobin
--carbaminohemoglobin only accounts for 23% of blood CO2

15

leukocytes

white blood cells
function:
-defend against pathogens
-remove toxins, wastes, damaged cells
-do not function in circulatory system

16

how do leukocytes move

move into tissues from blood vessels
-diapedesis
--squeezing out of the BV's
--going to different tissues

17

2 types of leukocytes

ganuloctyes
agranulocytes

18

granulocytes

-granular indusions in cytoplasm

19

agranulocytes

no visible granules

20

neutrophils

-granulocytes
-60% of white blood cells
-lobed nucleus
-very mobile
-functions:
--1st defense against microorganisms
--phagocytic
--attract more neutrophils

21

eosinophils

-granulocytes
-bi-lobed nucleus
-red granules
-functions
--attracted to injuries
--phagocytize compounds bonded with antibodies
--increase during allergic reactions

22

basophils

-granulocytes
-1% of WBCs
-s shaped nucleus
-blue granules
-functions
--release histamine: inflammatory response, attracts other WBCs
--release anticoagulants

23

monocytes

-agranulocytes
-2-8% of WBCs
-largest cells in blood
-functions:
--phagocytize foreign material
--fuse to form osteroclasts
---form free and fixed macrophages
---recruit more monocytes
--attract fibroblasts

24

lymphocytes

agranulocytes
-20-305 of WBCs
-mature in lymph organs
-smalles
-non-phagocytic
-functions:
-specific immunity
--focus on a single pathogen
--produce antibodies
--destroy abnormal tissue

25

3 types of lymophocytes

-t cells
-b cells
- NK cells

26

t cells

attack foreign cels directly

27

b cells

differentiate into plasmocytes that produce antibodies

28

NK cells

-immune surveillance
-destruction of abnormal cells
--ex= cancer cells

29

thrombocytes

-platelet
-small, anucleate cell fragments
-from megakaryocytes
-produce proteins for blood clotting
-last for about 10-12 days

30

blood clotting

hemostasis
--stopping flow of blood
formation of clot involves
--transport of important clotting agents
--formation of a temporary patch
--clot contraction

31

hemopoeisis

-all blood cells are derived from a pluripotent stemm cell
--all cells except lymphocytes are derived from the resulting myeloid tissue
- in adults, all new blood cells are produced in the bone marrow
--liver and spleen contribute while in utero, but eventually cease

32

erythropoiesis

-formation of RBCs
-RBCs have no nucleus of mitochondria
-wear and tear with no repair
-RBCs last for about 120 days
-replace about 1% per day
-3 million RBCs replaced per second

33

leukopoiesis

-formation of WBCs
-granulocytes complete their development in the red marrow
--neutrophils last for 12 hours, dyeing after they engulf an object
-monocytes do no complete development until they exit the circulatory system
-lymphocytes
--immature cells can stay in bone marrow or move to thymus
-move to the spleen, tonsils, or lymph nodes where they mature
-can last for several years

34

blood type

RBC plasmalemma (cell membrane) has surface antigens
-these are usually glycoproteins or glycolipids
-are genetically determined (similar within ethnicities)
-A, B, and Rh are used to determine blood types

35

types of blood

A, B, AB, O
-people may have a antigens, b antigens, both (ab) and neither (o)
-you will produce antibody for all the antigens you dont have
-if foreign antigens are introduced into your bloodstream, you will produce antibodies to destroy them

36

Ab patient

can receive any blood, produces neither antibody

37

a patient

can receive blood from a and o, but produces B antibodies

38

b patients

can receive blood from b and o, but produces a antibodies

39

o patient

can receive blood from o only. produces a and b antibodies

40

Rh group

named after Rhesus macaque
-if you have rh antigen
--you are Rh+
-if you have no antigen
--you are Rh-
sometimes referred to as the D antigen

41

Rh group

Rh- people will only produce antibodies when exposed to the Rh antigen
--usually occurs from:
-receive Rh+ transfusion
-pregnant with Rh+ baby
--an Rh- mother may reject a second Rh+ baby