Chapter 15 - Neurologic Emergencies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15 - Neurologic Emergencies Deck (19):
1

A swelling or enlargement of part of a blood vessel, resulting from weakening of the vessel wall.

anuerysm

2

The inability to understand and/or produce speech.

aphasia

3

A sensation experienced prior to a seizure; serves as a warning sign that a seizure is about to occur.

aura

4

Slurred speech.

dysarthria

5

A blood clot or other substance in the circulatory system that travels to a blood vessel where it causes a blockage.

embolus

6

A seizure characterized by severe twitching of all of the body’s muscles that may last several minutes or more.

generalized seizure

7

Weakness on one side of the body.

hemiparesis

8

One of the two main types of stroke; occurs as a result of bleeding inside the brain.

hemorrhagic stroke

9

A lack of oxygen that deprives tissues of necessary nutrients, resulting from partial or complete blockage of blood flow; potentially reversible because permanent injury has not yet occurred.

ischemia

10

One of the two main types of stroke; occurs when blood flow to a particular part of the brain is cut off by a blockage (eg, a clot) inside a blood vessel.

ischemic stroke

11

A seizure affecting a limited portion of the  brain.

partial seizure

12

A period following a seizure that lasts between 5  and 30 minutes; characterized by labored respirations and some degree of altered mental status.

postictal state

13

A condition in which seizures recur every few minutes or last more than 30 minutes.

status epilepticus

14

A blood clot, either in the arterial or venous system.

thrombosis

15

A type of seizure that features rhythmic back-and-forth motion of an extremity and body stiffness.

tonic-clonic seizure

16

A disorder of the brain in which brain cells temporarily stop working because of insufficient oxygen, causing strokelike symptoms that resolve completely within 24 hours of onset.

transient ischemic attack (TIA)

17

Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale

Facial Droop (Ask patient to show teeth or smile)
evaluate equal movement of both sides of face

Arm Drift (Ask patient to close eyes and hold both arms out with palms up)
evaluate even lift as well as drift down

Speech (Ask patient to say, "The sky is blue in Cincinnati."

18

Los Angeles Prehospital Stroke Screen

1. Age > 45?
2. History of seizures or epilepsy absent?
3. Symptoms < 24 hours?
4. At baseline, patient not wheelchair-based or bedridden?
5. Blood glucose 60 - 4-- mg/dL?
6. Obvious asymmetry in any one of:
Facial smile?
Grip?
Arm Strength?
If 1 - 6 are marked yes, stroke is 97% likely.

19

Glasgow Coma Scale

Eye opening 4 - 1
Best verbal response 5 - 1
Best motor response 6 - 1