Chapter 14 - Cardiovascular Emergencies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14 - Cardiovascular Emergencies Deck (16):
1

List chambers of the heart.

right atrium receives blood from vena cava
right ventricle pumps blood to pulmonary artery
left atrium receives blood from pulmonary vein
left ventricle pumps blood to aorta

2

List valves of the heart.

tricuspid valve separates right atrium from ventricle
pulmonary valve separates right ventricle from pulmonary
mitral valve separates left atrium from ventricle
aortic valve separates left ventricle from aorta

3

Sympathetic nervous system function.

speeds heart rate
increases respiratory rate and depth
dilates blood vessels in muscles
constricts blood vessels in digestion

4

Parasympathetic nervous system function.

slows heart rate
slows respiratory rate
constricts blood vessels in muscles
dilates blood vessels in digestion

5

List major arteries.

aorta distributes oxygen rich blood
coronary arteries supply heart
carotid arteries supply head
subclavian arteries supply upper extremities
subclavian to brachial to radial/ulnar
iliac arteries supply groin, pelvis, and legs
iliac to femoral to anterior/posterior tibial and peroneal

6

Disorder of plaque inside of blood vessels.

Atherosclerosis
calcium and cholesterol build up to form plaque
obstructs flow by decreasing lumen
interfere with dilation and contraction of vessel
can lead to complete occlusion
can develop brittle plaque over time
brittle plaque can develop crack, stimulating blood clots

7

A blood clot that moves through vessels.

Thromboembolism
controlling factors (SHEDS Risks):
cigarette smoking
high blood pressure
elevated cholesterol
diabetes
lack of exercise
stress

8

Result of a blood clot in coronary artery.

Acute coronary syndrome
causes acute myocardial infarction
infarction = death of tissue
angina pectoris = pain

9

Signs of AMI.

crushing chest pain = angina pectoris
nausea, vomiting, cold sweat
cyanosis = bluish tint of skin
increased pulse rate except bradycardia if infarct inferior
blood pressure not determinant
normal respiration until CHF sets in
overwhelming feeling of impending doom
40% do not reach hospital alive

10

Arrhythmias of the heart.

ventricular fibrillation - ineffective quivering of ventricle
chance of survival decrease 10% per minute until defibrillation
ventricular tachycardia HR 150-200 = inadequate perfusion
bradycardia HR < 60
tachycardia HR > 100

11

Systolic pressure greater than 160 mmHg

Hypertensive emergency

12

Causes sudden pain located in the anterior part of the chest or in back between the shoulder blades.

dissecting aneurysm
inner layers of the aorta become separated, allowing blood to flow between layers
rapid onset of sharp or tearing pain

13

H’s and T’s

The H’s and T’s of ACLS is a mnemonic used to help remember the major causes of pulseless arrest including Pulseless Electrical Activity, Asystole, Ventricular Fibrillation, and Ventricular Tachycardia.

The H’s
Hypovolemia – Insufficient blood volume
Hypoxia – insufficient oxygenation
Hydrogen ion – acidosis
Hyper-/hypokalemia
Hypothermia - insufficient heat
Hypo-/Hyperglycemia – Blood sugar too low or too high

The T’s
Toxins - ingestions
Tamponade - cardiac
Tension pneumothorax
Thrombosis – pulmonary and cardiac
Trauma
Thromboembolism (PE)

14

Describe acute cardiac syndrome (ACS).

Ischemic disease of the heart.
Either myocardial infarction (AMI)
or angina pectoris.

15

Nonmodifieable risk factors for heart disease (RASH).

RASH
Race
Age
Sex
Heredity

16

Modifiable risk factors for heart disease (SHEDS).

SHEDS
Smoking
Hypertension
Exercise
Diet and diabetes
Stress