Chapter 9 - Airway Management Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 - Airway Management Deck (16):
1

Upper airway

all anatomic structures above vocal cords:
nose
mouth
jaw
oral cavity
pharynx (nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
larynx (thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, glottis, vocal cords)

2

Lower airway

fourth cervical vertebra and xiphoid process and from glottis to pulmonary capillary membrane
trachea
carina
main bronchus
bronchioles

3

Mediastium

heart
great vessels
esophagus
trachea
major bronchi
phrenic nerve (diaphragm)

4

Physical act of moving air into and out of the lungs.

Ventilation

5

Process of loading oxygen molecules onto hemoglobin molecules in the blood stream.

Oxygenation

6

Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the alveoli and other tissues of the body.

Respiration

7

Signs of inadequate breathing.

respiratory rate > 20 breaths/min
respiratory rate < 12 breaths/min
irregular respiratory rhythm
absent, irregular or noisy breath sounds
unequal or inadequate chest expansion
increased breathing effort (accessory muscles)
shallow breathing (reduced tidal volume)
skin that is pale, cyanotic skin, cool, clammy
retractions (skin pullin in around ribs or above clavicles)

8

Occurs when the respiratory center in the brain continues to send signals to the respiratory muscles after death.

Agonal gasps

9

Preferred method of oxygen delivery in patients who are breathing adequately but may have signs of hypoxia.

nonrebreathing mask
combination mask and air bag
use 15 L/min oxygen

10

Preferred method of oxygen delivery in patients who are NOT breathing adequately.

bag mask device
provides positive pressure
can be used in awake patient, timed with own respirations
adult 1 breath per 5-6 seconds
infant and child 1 breath per 3-5 seconds

11

Indications that ventilation is adequate

Visible and equal chest rise and fall
adult ventilation at 10 - 12 bpm
infant/child ventilation at 12 - 20 bpm
heart rate returns to normal
skin color is improving (pink)

12

Indications that ventilation is NOT adequate

Minimal or no chest rise and fall
ventilation too fast or too slow for patient age
heart rate does not return to normal
skin color remains cyanotic, mottled, or deteriorates

13

Device that allows single rescuer to use both hands for mask to face seal while providing positive-pressure ventilation.

manually triggered ventilation device
provides 100% oxygen at up to 40 L/min
too high a pressure can yield pneumothorax

14

An indication of mild upper airway obstruction.

stridor (high pitched noise primarily on inspiration)
treat as severe airway obstruction

15

Causes of airway obstruction.

Relaxation of the tongue
aspirated vomitus
foreign objects
blood clots, bone fragments, damaged tissue after injury
airway tissue swelling (infection, allergic reaction)

16

Oxygen cylinder endurance calculation.

duration of flow in minutes = (gauge pressure - safe residual pressure) / constant flow rate in liters per minute safe residual pressure: 200 constants: D cylinder 0.16