Chapter 5 - Human Body Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 - Human Body Deck (105):
1

Planes of the Body

Coronal (front and back)
Transverse (top and bottom)
Sagittal (left and right)
Midsagittal (midline split L/R)

2

Directional - Front and Back

Anterior (ventral)
Posterior (dorsal)

3

Directional - Top and Bottom

Superior (head)
Inferior (feet)

4

Directional - Closest and Farthest

Proximal (closest to point of attachment)
Distal (farthest from the point of attachment)

5

Directional - Middle and Side

Medial (closest to the midline)
Lateral (farthest from the midline)

6

Directional - In and Out

Superficial (closest to the surface)
Deep (farthest from the surface)

7

Movement

Flexion (bending of joint)
Extension (straightening of joint)
Adduction (motion toward midline)
Abduction (motion away from midline)

8

Quadrants

RUQ
LUQ
RLQ
LLQ

9

On incline, feet higher than head

Trendelenburg's Position

10

Head and torso supine, lower limbs raised

Shock or modified Trendelenburg

11

Sitting up with knees drawn in

Fowler's Position

12

Lying face down

Prone position

13

Lying face up

Supine position

14

Skeletal support structures

Ligament (connects bone to bone)
Tendon (connect muscle to bone)
Cartilage (cushion between bones)

15

Cranium Bones (5)

occiput (posterior)
temporals (lateral)
parietal (top)
frontal (front)
foramen magnum is hole in occiput for spinal cord

16

Facial Bones (14)

maxillae (fixed jaw)
zygomas (cheek)
mandible (moveable jaw)
nasal

17

Eye Socket

framed by frontal bone, temporal bones, nasal bones, zygomatic bones, and maxilla

18

Bones of Spinal Column (33)

Cervical vertebrae (7)
Thoracic vertebrae (12)
Lumbar vertebrae (5)
Sacral vertebrae (5)
Coccygeal vertebrae (4)

19

Thoracic Cavity

Formed by 12 thoracic vertebrae and 12 pairs of ribs, sternum (manubrium, body and xiphoid process).
Inferior boundry is diaphragm which separates thorax from abdomen.

20

Shoulder Girdle

clavicle
scapula - acromion is bony process that joins with clavicle
humerus
Glenohumeral (shoulder - joins humerus and scapula
Acromioclavicular (joins lateral clavicle to scapula)
Sternoclavicular (joins medial clavicle to sternum

21

Bones of Arm and Hand

humerus
ulna (larger proximal)
radius (larger distal)
wrist (8 carpal bones)
metacarpals (5)
phalanges (5 - digits or fingers)

22

Pelvic Bones (2)

Pelvic bone is fusion of:
ilium - ischium - pubis
Joined together posteriorly by the sacrum, anteriorly at the pubic symphysis (has cartilage to allow slight movement).

23

Leg Bones

Femoral head (attaches at acetabulum)
Greater trochanter (lateral) and lesser trochanter (medial).
Patella (kneecap) anterior to knee joint
Tibia (shin bone) larger and anterior
Fibula on lateral side of leg.

24

Ankle and Foot Bones

Ankle consists of 7 Tarsal bones (talus is part of leg joint, calcaneus is heel). Talus to cuboid to navicular
Foot consists of 5 Metatarsals and Phlanges (toes)
3 phalanges in each toe except big toe which has 2.

25

Pelvis

Sacrum
Pelvic bones (2)
ilium - ischium - pubis
Acetabulum is socket on pelvis where lower leg connects.

26

Muscles under voluntary control

skeletal muscle

27

Muscles found within blood vessels and intestines

smooth muscle

28

Muscles found within the heart

cardiac muscle

29

Upper Airway Structures (7)

nose
mouth
tongue
jaw
oral cavity
larynx
pharynx

30

Protects the opening of the trachea

epiglottis

31

Warm, filter and humidify air

nasopharynx

32

Anterior part of larynx

thryroid cartilage or Adam's Apple
contains vocal cords

33

Immediately below thyroid cartilage

Cricoid cartilage
Location for using Sellick maneuver (press on the cricoid cartilage to compress the esophagus behind it so as to prevent gastric reflux from occurring.

34

Depression in the midline of the neck, just inferior to the thyroid cartilage

cricothyroid membrane
landmark for needle airway

35

Approximate length of trachea

5 inches

36

Division of trachea

carina

37

700 million grape like sacs

alveoli

38

Lower airway

trachea
carina
main bronchi (2 - R/L)
bronchioles to right (3 lobes) and left (2 lobes)
alveoli

39

Has characteristics of skeletal and smooth muscles

diaphragm

40

Process of gas exchange

respiration

41

Movement of air between lung and environment

ventilation

42

Process to move O2 and CO2 across capillaries

diffusion

43

Gas content of exhaled air

16% O2
3 - 5% CO2

44

Center for control of breathing

brain stem
sensors determine level of CO2 in spinal fluid

45

Function of medulla oblongata

Portion of the hindbrain that controls autonomic functions such as breathing, digestion, heart and blood vessel function, swallowing and sneezing.

46

What are Hering-Breuer reflexes?

In chest wall, detects lung expansion or deflation and directs pneumotaxic and apneustic centers.
Active in increased emotional or physical stress.

47

Dorsal and Ventral respiratory groups

Part of Medulla
Dorsal causes forced inspiration and is part of normal rhythmic breathing
Ventral causes forced expiration or inspiration with speech or stressful situations

48

Pneumotaxic and Apneustic centers

Part of Pons
Inhibit and excite (respectively) the Dorsal Respiratory Group of Medulla under stress.

49

Lung capacity of adult male

6 liters

50

Normal tidal volume

0.5 liters

51

Inspiratory reserve volume

deepest breath you can take, about 3 L

52

Expiratory reserve volume

maximum amount of air that you exhale, about 1.2 L

53

Residual volume

Volume of air that does not flow in ventilation 1.2 L

54

Normal rate of breathing in adult

12 - 20 breaths / minute

55

Signs that a patient is not breathing normally

less than 12 or more than 20 breaths / minute
labored breathing
pale or cyanotic skin
cool, damp skin (clammy)
tripod position (leaning forward on outstreched arms

56

Systemic Circulation

carries oxygen rich blood from the left ventricle, through the body to the right atrium.
high pressure system

57

Pulmonary Circulation

carries oxygen poor blood from right ventricle through the lungs and back to the left atrium.
low pressure system

58

Parts of left heart

mitral valve
aortic valve
coronary arteries and veins
left ventricle
left atrium

59

Parts of the right heart

tricuspid valve
pulmonary valve
right ventricle
right atrium

60

Bands of fibrous tissue attached to heart valves

chordae tendineae

61

Normal heart rate

50 - 60 beats per minute resting
up to 180 with vigorous exercise

62

Stroke volume

70 - 80 mL

63

Cardiac output equation

amount of blood pumped in 1 minute
CO = HR x SV

64

Central pulses (6 primary)

carotid artery
femoral artery
radial artery (wrist at base of thumb)
brachial artery (medial arm midway elbow-shoulder)
posterior tibial artery (posterior and medial ankle)
dorsalis pedis artery (top of foot)
also superficial temporal and external maxillary

65

Function of Spleen

Filtering worn out blood cells, foreign substances, bacteria.
Assist in immune response.
Hemoglobin is recylced.
450 mL blood on board

66

Blood Composition

Water 92% of plasma
Proteins 7% of plasma
Oxygen almost all bound to hemoglobin

67

What is perfusion

circulation of the blood in an organ.

68

Function of blood

Fight infection - WBC
Transport oxygen - RBC
Transport carbon dioxide - Plasma
Control pH - Chemicals in plasma
Transport wastes and nutrients - Plasma/Water
Clotting - Platelets and clotting factors

69

Nervous System effects on Cardiovascular System

Sympathetic:
Alpha-1 Constrict blood vessels
Beta-1 Increase heart rate and force of contraction
Beta-2 Dilate bronchioles in lung

Parasympathetic:
Decrease heart rate and force of contraction

70

Cerebrum

gray matter
3/4 of brain mass
frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes
Primary motor center / opposite sides

71

Cerebellum

underneath cerebrum
coordination of activities

72

Brain Stem

primative brain
controls cardiac, respiratory, basic functions
conciousness
reticular activating system
midbrain, pons, medulla oblonggata

73

Blood Supply to Brain

Blood in from carotid arteries
Drains into internal and external jugular veins
Cerebrospinal fluid colorless surrounds brain and spinal cord.

74

Spinal Reflexes

Sensory stimuli traveling to brain through spinal cord have direct connections to motor nerves coming from brain to muscle. Muscle can respond without signal making it all the way to brain.
Knee tap is test of reflex loop.

75

Somatic Nervous System

i) Spinal Nerves: They are peripheral nerves that carry sensory information into the spinal cord and motor commands.

ii) Cranial Nerves: They are the nerve fibers which carry information into and out of the brain stem. They include smell, vision, eye, eye muscles, mouth, taste, ear, neck, shoulders and tongue.

iii) Association Nerves: These nerves integrate sensory input and motor output numbering thousands.

76

Autonomic Nervous System

Sympathetic - fight or flight
Parasympathetic - generally slows body.

77

Motor nerves

Cell body for motor nerves lies in spinal cord.

78

Skin (Integumentary System) Anatomy

Superficial epidermis has germinal layer that produces new cells that move to stratum corneal layer

Deeper dermis has sweat glands, sebaceous glands, hair follicles, blood vessels and nerve endings

Subcutaneous tissue is composed largely of fat - insulation and energy storage.

79

Mucous Membranes

Mouth, nose, anus, vagina not covered by skin but by mucous membranes. GI tract is completely mucous membranes.

80

Skin Physiology

Skin is single largest organ in body.
protects body from invasion by infectious organisms
Regulation of body temperature
Information about the environment - sensations

81

Abdomen

2nd largest body cavity
Diaphragm separates abdomen from thorax
Inferior is pelvis which is separated by an imaginary plane that extends from pubic symphysis through sacrum'
RUQ - Liver, gall bladder, portion of colon
Liver fills entire AP space under 8th to 12th ribs.
LUQ - Stomach, spleen, portion of colon
Spleen lateral and posterior, mostly under 9th to 11th ribs; stomach may sag into LLQ when full.
RLQ - Large intestine (cecum and ascending colon), appendix.
LLQ - Large intestine (descending and sigmoid).

Small intestine occupies central parts around umbilicus in all four quadrants.

Pancreas and Kidneys behind posterior abdominal wall in RUQ and LUQ (retroperitoneal).

Urinary bladder just behind pubic symphysis in middle of abdomen (RLQ LLQ)

82

Roof of mouth formed by __________

Hard palate - bony plate lying anteriorly
Soft palate - fold of muscle and mucous membrane extending posteriorly

83

Salivary glands

2 under tongue and 2 in cheek.
Produce 1.5 L saliva daily - 98% water.
Saliva composed of mucus, salts, organic compounds and certain digestive enzymes

84

Extends vertically from back of mouth to esophagus and trachea.

Oropharynx

85

Collapsible tube extends from end of pharynx to stomach.

Esophagus - about 10" long
Just anterior to spinal column

86

Hollow organ in LUQ

Stomach, protected by lower left ribs.
Produces approximately 1.5 L of gastric juice daily, churning and secretions turn food into chyme.
Takes 1-3 hours to discharge small meal into duodenum.

87

Flat solid organ that lies below and behind liver

Pancreas
Deep in abdomen and not easily damaged.
Exocrine secretes 2 L of enzyme containing juice daily into duodenum along pancreatic ducts.
Endocrine is islets of Langerhans that produce insulin to regulate glucose in body.

88

Solid organ in RUQ immediately beneath diaphragm

Liver
extends into LUQ.
Processes toxic products of digestion, produces blood clotting factors and produces plasma.

Between 0.5 and 1 L of bile made daily to assist in fat digestion pass through bile ducts to duodenum.
Gallbladder is out pouching of bile ducts which store bile until needed (60 - 90 mL). Green color turns feces brown.

Main storage of sugar and starch for immediate use for body energy.

All blood circulation from digestive system passes through portal vein before returning to heart (25% of Cardiac Ouput passes through liver - 1.5 L / min).
Bile ducts

89

Major hollow organ of the abdomen

Small intestine
Duodenum (12 inches long), jejunum and ileum (together 20 feet long).
Walls secrete mucous and enzymes to aid digestion

90

Organ encircling the outer margin of the abdomen

Large intestine - 5 feet long
Cecum, Colon, Rectum
Removes final 5 - 10% of digested food and water to form stool which is stored in rectum and passed through anus.

91

Tubular organ in RLQ

Appendix is tube 3 - 4 inches long that opens into cecum.
Can easily become blocked and infected. Major cause for severe abdominal distress.

92

Normally, without food or fluid ingestion, between 8 and 10 L / day of fluid secreted into GI tract

About 7% of body weight is delivered as fluid daily.
Diarrhea and vommitting for 2-3 days will severely deplete body fluid.

93

Complex message and control system to integrate bodily functions

Endocrine System uses hormones released into circulatory system to control body.
Hormones have specific effects on organs, tissues or processes.
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine released by adrenal gland.
Insulin from pancreas cause glucose to enter cells.

94

System to control fluid balance, filter waste and control pH

Urinary System
Kidneys (solid organ) located posterior muscle wall in retroperitoneal space.
20% of cardiac output (1.2 L/day) passes through kidney.
Aorta to kidney to inferior vena cava.
Filtered fluid flows to renal pelvis then to ureter and to bladder by peristalsis.
Urinary bladder immediatel behind pubic symphysis in pelvic cavity.
Urethra leads out, healthy adult forms 1.5 to 2 L / day.

95

Male Reproductive System

Prostate gland and seminal vesicles lie inside the pelvic cavity, others outside.
Testicles produce immature sperm and male hormones.
Epididymis stores and matures sperm.
Vas deferens carries semen to urethra then to penis.

96

Female Reproduction System

Ovaries produce female sex hormones (directly to cirulation) and ovum (mature egg cell) (through fallopian tubes to uterus).
Vagina is muscular distensible tube that connects uterus to vulva.
Normal gestation 40 weeks.
Vagina also channels menstrual flow

97

System that depends on oxygen to use fuel

Aerobic metabolism
Cells use oxygen to utilize ATP 15 times more efficiently than without oxygen. Waste products are CO2 and water.
Without O2, brain cells begin to die within 4 to 6 minutes.

98

System that does not depend on oxygen to use fuel

Anaerobic metabolism
When oxygen is not present, cells can utilize energy less efficiently. Waste products include lactic acid.
Lactic acid is converted back into useful energy once oxygen is available.

99

Normal Physiological pH

7.35 - 7.45

100

V/Q Ratio

How much gas is being moved effectively to the alveoli (Ventilation) and how much blood is gaining access to the alveoli (Perfusion).

101

Condition where organs and tissues are not receiving an adequate flow of blood and oxygen.

Shock:
Hypovolemic - Loss of blood or other fluid
Cardiogenic - Loss of heart function
Distributive - Excessive vasodilation (septic most common)

102

Gas content of inhaled air.

20.6% oxygen
0.03% carbon dioxide
78% nitrogen

103

The medial surface of the lower extremity of tibia is prolonged downward to form a pyramidal process.

medial malleolus

104

The lower extremity of the fibula is of a pyramidal form and somewhat flattened from side to side.

lateral malleolus or external malleolus,

105

Spinal nerve roots

C3-5 Phrenic nerve (diaphragm)
C5-6 Arm flexion
T2-7 Chest and intercostal muscles
L2-4 Knee extension