Chapter 15 Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15 Part 2 Deck (51):
1

Short distance signals that form action potentials

Graded potentials

2

Long distance signals sent to effectors

Action potentials

3

Leakage,ligand and voltage

Ion channels

4

Internal charge difference between inside of neuron compared to outside

Membrane potential (MP)

5

Neurons have a more negative charge inside and a more positive charge outside

Membrane potential (MP)

6

This produces a polarized charged neuron at rest equal to -70 mV (RMP$

Membrane potential (MP)

7

Higher concentration of ___ ions outside of neurons (ECF)

Na+

8

Higher concentration of __ ions inside neuron (cytosol/ICF)

K+

9

Small changes in RMP(-70mV)

Graded potentials

10

Results in a more positive internal charge and has an excitatory effect

Depolarization

11

Restores internal charge back to resting charge of -70mV

Repolarization

12

Results in a more negative internal charge than -70mV and has a inhibitory effect

Hyperpolarization

13

Form action potentials at ___

Threshold

14

All or none principle states an internal charge of -55mV (threshold) will produce

Action potentials

15

Occurs in 2 phases both are positive feedback processes

Depolarizing and repolarizing

16

Results in a more positive, excitatory internal charge by opening Na+ channels

Depolarization

17

Na + flows into

Neuron

18

As threshold is reached an action potential is produced

Toppling dominoes

19

Restores charge back to -70mV by opening K+ channels, K+ flow out of neuron causing dominoes to stand upright

Repolarization

20

The delay time required for a neuron to produce another action potential

Refractory period

21

A second Ap cannot be produced ;domino on its side

Absolute

22

A second AP can be produced; domino partially upright

Relative

23

Occurs in u myelinated neurons and is slower dominoes topple at each segment of axon

Continuous

24

Occurs in myelinated neurons and is faster dominoes topple only at nodes of ranvier

Saltatory

25

Affected by 3 factors axon diameter of neuron

Conduction speed

26

Largest diameter myelinated and fastest

A neurons

27

Intermediate diameter

B neurons

28

Smallest diameter,unmyelinated slowest and conduct pain impulses

C neurons

29

Conduction speed has the presence of

Myelin sheath

30

Ice reduces pain by decreasing conduction speed

Temperature

31

Myelinated neurons conduct impulses the fastest when heat is applied

Large diameter

32

Does not affect conduction speed

Strength of stimulus

33

Send impulse

Presynaptic

34

Receives impulse

Postsynaptic

35

Involve gap junctions and are faster

Electrical synapses

36

Involve the release of neurotransmitters triggered by ca2+

Chemical synapses

37

Produce excitatory Postsynaptic potentials (EPSPS) by opening Na+ channels -neuron is more likely to reach threshold

Excitatory neurotransmitters

38

Na+ flows into Postsynaptic neuron resulting in a more _______internal charge

Positive (depolarized) (excitatory neurotransmitters )

39

Produce inhibitory Postsynaptic potentials (IPSPS) by opening K+ channels -flows out of Postsynaptic neuron resulting in a more
Negative (hyper polarized) internal charge -neuron is less likely to reach threshold

Inhibitory neurotransmitters

40

Produced only when several EPSPS cause internal charge to reach threshold (-55mV)

Nerve impulses

41

-Enzymatic degradation- reuptake my Neurons

Neurotransmitter removal

42

Is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor commonly used to treat depression

Prozac

43

Enhance

Agonist

44

Block neurotransmitter actions

Antagonist

45

Has excitatory effects in brain

Glutamate

46

Has inhibitory effects in brain

GABA

47

Commonly used for anxiety is a GABA agonist enhancing inhibitory (calming) effect

Valium

48

Enables neurons to change by forming new dendrites and synaptic connections with other neurons

Plastiscity

49

Axons and dendrites may repair if ___

Neuron cell body remains intact

50

Does not form too rapidly

Scar tissue

51

Neurons are electrically excitable due to charge differences across plasma membrane resulting in the flow of ions through channels

Electrical signals in neurons