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Flashcards in Midterm Review Deck (157):
1

Contact point between cells

Cell junctions

2

Permit rapid communication between cells

Gap junctions

3

Consists of packed cells arranged in single or multiple layers covers and lines body systems apical (top) and basal (bottom) surfaces of cells

Epithelial tissue

4

Lacks own blood vessels

Avascular

5

High rate of _____ for renewel and repair (epithelial tissue)

Cell division

6

Attaches epithelium to connective tissue layer

Basement membrane

7

Cell layer types : single layer of cells usually with same height

Simple epithelium

8

Cell layer types: single layer of tall and short cells

Pseudo stratified epithelium

9

Cell layer types: multiple layers of cells that protect tissues from water and tear

Stratified epithelium

10

Lines heart and blood vessels

Endothelium

11

Cilated type lines uterine tubes & resporatory tract

Simple columnar epithelium

12

Consists of multiple cell layers and shape of cells at top determines name

Stratified epithelium

13

Forms top layer of skin

Keratinized

14

Protects and waterproofs skin

Keratin

15

Lines urinary system

Transitional epithelium

16

Release hormones into blood

Endocrine glands

17

Connective tissue; secrete fibers and ground substance

Fibroblasts

18

Connective tissue (ct) types ; forms before birth ;mesenchyme

Embryonic Ct

19

Forms after birth

Mature ct

20

Collagen fibers arranged in parallel bundles; strengthens tissues such as tendons and ligaments

Dense regular

21

-Most abundant tissue -binds organs -vascular and has nerve supply except cartliage

Connective tissue

22

2 parts of connective tissue:

Ground substance and fibers

23

-Materials between cells & fibers -permits the exchange of materials between blood and cells

Ground substance

24

-collagen fibers strengthen tissues -elastic fibers permits organs to return to original shape after being stretched -reticular fibers

Fibers

25

Elastic fibers that stretch and recoil to original shape such as in lungs and blood vessels

Dense (elastic)

26

Consists of chondrocytes (cartliage cells) surrounded by a semi-hard matrix

Cartliage

27

Cartliage grows and repairs ___

Slowly

28

-most abundant -supports and reduces friction at joints

Hyaline cartliage

29

-strongest type and located in intervertebral disc

Fibrocartilage

30

Tissue heal faster & leave fewer scars in younger people -younger tissues have a better blood supply and nutritional state

Aging

31

The assessory structures in integumentary system include ______,_______,______,______

Texture,tone,temperature & tenderness

32

Skin layers include:

Epidermis & dermis

33

Superficial epithelial layer

Epidermis

34

Deeper connective tissue layer

Dermis

35

Subcutaneous layer - Fatty layer below skin

Hypodermis

36

Consists of stratified sqamous Keratinized epithelium

Epidermis

37

Contains keratin; protein that waterproofs skin

Keratinocytes

38

Produces melanin; absorbs uv Rays and contributes to skin color

Melanocytes

39

Consists of 4-5 strata (layers)

1.stratum basale
2. Stratum spinosum
3. Stratum granulosum
4.stratum lucidum
5.stratum corneum

40

Nervous tissue produces ____ impulses

Nerve

41

Deepest layer best blood supply contains stem (germ) cells involved in mitosis ;formation of new cells

Stratum basale

42

Required if stratum basale destroyed

Skin grafts

43

Only located in thick skin; palms and soles

Stratum lucidum

44

Most superficial

Stratum corneum

45

Deeper connective tissue portion of skin consists of papillary and reticular regions

Dermis

46

Produces a darker skin color

Melanin

47

Is an inherited inability to produce melanin

Albinism

48

Oxygen carrying pigment in blood

Hemoglobin

49

Produces an orange skin color

Carotene

50

Includes hair glands and nails -all develop from stratum basale of epidermis

Accessory structures

51

Located on thin skin -protects scalp from uv Rays and decrease heat loss

Hairs

52

Superficial portion above skin

Shaft

53

Deeper portion penetrates skin

Root

54

raise hairs causing "goosebumps"

Arrector pili muscles

55

Develop from stratum basale of epidermis

Skin glands

56

Associated with hairs in thin skin -absent in thick skin -secrete sebum (oil) preventing dryness -increased activity may cause acne

Sebaceous glands

57

3-4 million in body -release sweat on the skin surface

Sudoriferous (sweat) glands

58

Regulate body temperature

Eccrine glands

59

Mainly located in Axilla and produce a more viscous secretion

Apocrine glands

60

Skin located on palms,Palmer surface of digits and soles

Thick (hairless) skin

61

Skin lacks stratum lucidum

Thin (hairy) skin

62

Controls body temperature by negative feedback

Thermoregulation

63

Stores 8-10% of blood at rest in an adult

Blood reservoir

64

Barrier to microbes and chemicals

Protection

65

Excretes and absorbs substances- produces vitamin D

Skin functions

66

Superficial wound only involves epidermis does not bleed

Epidermal wound healing

67

Wound extends beyond epidermis

Deep wound healing

68

Blood clot forms and vasodilation increases delivery of phagocytic cells

Inflammatory

69

Clot forms scab and fibroblasts begin forming scar tissue

Migratory

70

Scar tissue formation occurs

Fibrosis

71

Most common type of skin cancer rarely meta size and usually harmless

Basal cell carcinoma

72

Rarest and most deadly type of skin cancer

Malignant melanoma

73

Include age,skin type,sun exposure and family history

Risk factors

74

A type of connective tissue that remodels and repairs on a daily basis

Bone tissue

75

Functions of bone tissue

1.supports and protects
2.assist in movement
3.mineral homeostasis
4. Blood cell protection
5.triglycercide storage

76

Cylindrical portion

Diaphysis (shaft)

77

Distal and proximal ends

Epiphyses

78

Joins diaphysis with epiphyses -in growing bones contain the epiphyseal (growth) plate involved in bone growth in length

Metaphysis

79

Membrane lining medullary cavity

Endosteum

80

Matrix surrounding bone cells consist of __ water ___ collegen fibers __ salt

25% 25% 50%

81

Most abundant salt hardens bone

Calcium phosphate

82

Contribute to tensile strength

Collagen fibers

83

Bone stem cells that divide to form osteoblast

Osteogenic

84

Immature bone building cells

Osteoblasts

85

Mature bone cells that maintain bone tissue

Osteocytes

86

Function in bone respiration ; crush bone controlling blood calcium levels

Osteoclasts

87

Most common and strongest bone type -forms exterior of all bones

Compact (dense) bone

88

Are structural units of compact bone consisting of concentric lamelle,lacunae and canaliculi

Osteons

89

Rings of calcified bone matrix

Concentric lamellae

90

Containing osteocytes

Lacunae

91

Small channels permitting osteocytes to exchange materials with blood

Canaliculi

92

Consists of trabeculae; thin plates of bone some adults spongy bone contains red bone marrow including axial skeleton and involved in hemopoiesis

Spongy bone

93

Pelvic bones and ends of long bones

Axial skeleton

94

Blood cell production

Involved in hemopoiesis

95

Osteoblasts secrete matrix

Ossification center develops

96

Occurs salted hardens matrix

Calcification

97

Lengthens cartliage

Interstitial growth

98

Growth In lengths adds bone to diaphyseal side of plate

Epiphyseal (interstital) plate

99

Nearest diaphysis ; bone replaces cartliage

Zone of calcified cartliage

100

Requires a balance between the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts

Bone homeostasis

101

Results when osteoclast activity is greater than osteoblast activity

Osteoporosis

102

Factors affecting bone growth- stimulates collegen synthesis increasing tensile strength

Vitamin c

103

Absorbs calcium

Vitamin D

104

Deficiency in children

Rickets

105

Deficiency in adults

Osteomalacia

106

Stimulates osteoblast activity causing "growth spurt"

Sex hormones

107

Partial fracture one side weakens and other side bends ; occurs only in children

Green stick

108

Fractured from severly everting foot

Potts distal fibula

109

Distal radius fractured by hyperextending wrist

Colles distal radius

110

Phagocytes and osteoclasts begin removing damaged tissue

Fracture hematoma (blood clot)

111

Final phase of bone fracture repairs bone continues to remodel through out a persons lifetime

Bone remodeling

112

Bone cancer most often occurs in teenagers during growth spurt

Osteogenic saracoma

113

Long straited fibers attached to bones and voluntary controlled

Skeletal muscle tissue

114

Branched straited fibers joined by intercalated discs and involuntary controlled

Cardiac (heart) muscle tissue

115

Spindle shaped non straited fibers located in hollow organs and involuntary controlled

Smooth muscle tissue

116

Ability to respond to stimuli

Electrical excitibilty

117

Muscle fiber is known as

Myofiber

118

Myofiber consists of a smaller muscle fibers known as

Myofibrlis

119

Myofibrlis consists of the smallest muscle fibers known as thick and thin

Myofilaments

120

Functional units of striated muscle separated by 2 discs

Sarcomeres

121

The lighter area of sarcomere containing only thin filaments

I band

122

Composed of
Myosin

Thick myofilaments

123

Includes myosin and actin

Contractile proteins

124

Include troponin and tropomyosin attaches to scum

Regulatory proteins

125

Thick filaments pull on thin filaments sliding them over thick filaments -2 discs move closer together shortening entire muscle

Sliding filament mechanism

126

Point of communication between neuron and effector

Synapse

127

Released from synaptic vesicles into synaptic cleft

Acetylcholine (Ach)

128

Binds to receptors on motor end plate opening sodium ion channels

Ach

129

Is produced as nat flows into muscle cell making it more positively charged

Muscle action potential (MAP)

130

Binds to troponin Uncovering actin binding sites for
Myosin

Ca 2+

131

Breakdown energizes myosin head

ATP

132

Myosin detaches from actin as ATP binds to myosin

Contraction cycle steps
(Continued)

133

Higher concentration of Na+ ions outside of neuron (ECF) - higher concentration of
K+ ions inside neuron

Membrane potential

134

Results in a more positive internal charge and has an excitatory effect

Depolarization

135

Results in a more negative internal charge than -70mv and has an inhibitory effect

Hyper polarization

136

Forms action potentials (nerve impulses) at threshold

Graded potentials

137

All or none principle states an internal charge of -55 mV (threshold) will produce an action potential

Action potentials

138

Results in a more posive excitatory internal charge by opening Na+ channels na+ flows into neuron

Depolarization

139

As threshold is reached an action potential is
Produced

Toppling dominoes

140

Restores charge back to -70mV by opening k+ channels k+ flows out of neuron causing dominoes to stand upright

Repolarization

141

Occurs in myelinated nerurons and is faster dominoes topple only at nodes of ranvier

Saltatory

142

Affected by 3 factors

Conduction speed

143

Intermediate diameter

B neurons

144

Largest diameter myelinated and fastest

A neurons

145

Smallest diameter ,unmyelinated slowest and conduct pain impulses

C neurons

146

Presence of myelin sheath

Conduction speed

147

Ice reduces pain by decreasing conduction speed

Temperature

148

The ___ of a stimulus does not affect conduction speed

Strength

149

Involve gap junctions and are faster

Electrical synapses

150

Involve the release of neurotransmitters triggers by ca2+

Chemical synapses

151

Produced only when several EPSPS cause internal charge to reach threshold (-55mV)

Nerve impulses

152

Enhance

Agonist

153

Block neurotransmitter actions

Antagonist

154

Inhibitory effects in brain

GABA

155

Commonly used for anxiety is a GABA agonist enhancing inhibitory (calming) effect

Valium

156

Axons and dendrites may repair If

Neuron cell body remains intact

157

Does not form to rapidly

Scar tissue