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Flashcards in Final Deck (172):
1

Deepest & forms deniculate ligaments; triangular shaped extensions that laterally anchor cord

Pig mater

2

In adults, spinal cord ends at superior border of L2 enlargements: cervical; nerves to upper limbs lumbar; nerves to lower limbs

External spinal cord anatomy

3

Shaped like letter h surrounded by white matter

Gray matter (internal spinal cord anatomy )

4

Groups of cell bodies in CNS

Nuclei

5

Gray matter is subdivided into ____ horns

3 horns

6

Contains somatic motor nuclei

Anterior horn

7

Control skeletal muscles

Somatic motor nuclei

8

Mainly contains myelinated neurons

White matter

9

White matter is Subdivided into 3 columns

Anterior posterior and lateral

10

Bundles of neurons located in white matter of CNS

Tracts

11

31 pairs in PNS are mixed (sensory and motor) nerves

Spinal nerves

12

Cervical

C1-c8

13

Thoracic

(T1-T12)

14

Lumbar

(L1-L5)

15

Sacral

S1-s5

16

Coccygeal

Co1

17

Connect spinal nerves to cord

Roots

18

Contains sensory neurons to CNS ; controls sensations

Posterior (dorsal) root

19

Contains motor neurons from CNS , controls movement

Anterior ventral root

20

Middle layer surrounding axon bundles (fascicles) (spinal nerve coverings)

Perineurium

21

Spinal nerve branches

Rami (extensions)

22

Formed by anterior rami of all Spinal nerves except t2-t12 (intercostal nerves)

Plexuses

23

-Formed by anterior rami of c5-c8 & t1
-supplies upper limbs

Brachial plexus

24

Inability to extend wrist and fingers (radial nerve injury)

Wrist drop

25

Formed by anterior rami of
L4-l5 and s1-s4 -supplies lower limbs

Sacral plexus

26

Sciatic nerve consists of

A.tibial
B.common peroneal

27

Damage to only common peroneal portion (inability to dorsiflex)

Foot drop

28

Used to withdraw CSF, inject antibiotics or anthetics

Spinal tap columbar punctures

29

Needle inserted into subarachnoid space at ___ of below in adult

14

30

Area of skin providing sensory input to CNS by spinal nerves or trigeminal nerve

Dermatome

31

White matter contains both sensory and motor tract

Tracts

32

-middle layer
-avascular
Subarachnoid space contains CSF
(Cerobrospinal fluid)

Arachnoid

33

Name of tract indicates ______ in white matter and where it begins and ends in CNS

Column location

34

Receptors that control muscle tone (contraction) by monitoring muscle length changes

Muscle spindles

35

Receptors that monitor tension (stretching) in tendon and muscles

Tendon organs

36

Nerve impulse pathway

Reflex arc

37

Step 1 - responds to stimulus

Sensory receptor

38

Step 2- carries impulse to CNS

Sensory neuron

39

Step 3- Process stimulus in CNS either 2 ways

Integrating center

40

Reflex arc (continued)
- ___
-____
-_____
-_____

-monosynaptic
-CNS synapse
-poly synaptic
-CNS synapse

41

Step 4- carries impulse from CNS

Motor neuron

42

Step 5- skeletal muscles (somatic) or smooth,cardiac muscle and glands (autonomic)

Effector responds

43

Muscle spindle receptors monitor muscle length changes

Stretch reflex

44

Stimulates muscle contraction in response to a a stretched muscle

Knee jerk reflex

45

____ muscle relaxes (stretch reflex)

Antagonistic muscle

46

Stretch reflex is ___

Monosynaptic

47

Impulses enter and exit same side of spinal cord

Ipsilateral

48

Golgi tendon organs monitor tension, tendon and muscles

Tendon reflex

49

During ____ quadriceps muscle relaxes protecting tendon and muscle from excessive tension

Leg flexion

50

-polysynaptic and ipsilateral
-initiates crossed extensor reflex

Flexor (withdrawal) reflex

51

Opposite limb extended to maintain balance (flexor withdrawal reflex)

Crossed extensor reflex

52

______ and ______ ; impulses enter and exit on opposite side of spinal cord (flexor withdrawal reflex)

Polysynaptic and contra lateral

53

Consists of medulla pons and midbrain

Brain stem

54

2nd largest part of the brain

Cerebellum

55

Consists of thalamus and hypothalamus

Diencephalon

56

Largest part of the brain

Cerebrum

57

Dura (outer) arachnoid (middle) and pia Mater (intermost)

Brain mengies

58

Separates cerebral hemispheres

Fall cerabri

59

Separates cerabellar hemispheres

Falx cerebelli

60

Separates cerebrum from cerebellum

Tentorium cerebelli

61

Formed by astrocytes protects brain from harmful substances

Blood brain barrier

62

Brain receives about 20% of body's oxygen at rest

Brain blood
Flow

63

Oxygen deprivation for ___ minutes or longer may cause permanent injury

4

64

Glucose supplied to brain Must be continuous low glucose levels may cause dizziness confusion and loss of conciouness

Brain blood flow

65

-stroke
-most common brain disorder
-risk factors ; high blood pressure,cholesterol,diabetes,smoking,excessive alcohol intake and obesity

Cerebrovascular accident

66

ECF located in subarachnoid space
-absorbs shock and transports nutrients and wastes

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

67

Brain cavities filled with CSF
2 lateral ventricles
3rd ventricle
4th ventricles

Ventricles

68

-capillaries located in ventricles that form CSF
-lindss by ependymal cells
-CSF is reabsorbed into blood by arachnoid villi

Choroid plexuses

69

Brain stem (1)
-inferior
-cardiovascular
-controls heart rhythmicity area controls breathing rate
-controls swallowing and vomiting
(VIII-xII)

Medulla oblongata

70

-middle portion
(V-vIII)

Pons

71

-superior portion
(III-Iv)

Midbrain

72

Dark area containing neurons controls subconscious muscle movements loss of neurons associated with Parkinson's disease

Substantia nigra

73

Main sensory reflex station to cerebral cortex

Thalamus

74

2nd largest part of the brain
-coordinates movements controlling posture and balance

Cerebellum

75

Disruption in muscle coordination (cerebellum)

Ataxia

76

-seat of intelligence
-cerebral cortex outer gray matter
-2 cerebral hemispheres

Cerebrum

77

Folds

Gyri

78

Shallow grooves

Sulci

79

Part include frontal,parietal,temporal occitipial loves and insula
-insula is not seen at surface

Cerebrum

80

Primary somatic sensory area

Post central gyrus

81

Is the primary motor area

Precenteal gyrus

82

Impulses with in same hemisphere

Association tracts

83

Transmits impulses between hemispheres

Commissural trades

84

Transmit impulses to and from spinal cord

Projection tracts

85

Consists of 3 nuclei globus pallid us, putamen and caudate nuclei
-subconscious-contractions such as muscle tone

Basal ganglia

86

Progressive disorder
Destroys dopamine
Resting tremor
Hypertonia causes rigidity
Bradykinsea slows movements
Hypokinsea decreases range of motion

Parkinson's disease

87

Emotional brain

Limbic system

88

Controls speech

Broca's area

89

Facial paralysis

Bella palsy

90

Tinnitus, vertigo ____

Ataxia

91

Transmit impulses between hemispheres

Comminsural tracts

92

Larger in females who are less likely to suffer aphasia inability to understand or speak words from stroke

Comminsural tracts

93

Originates in pons supplies facial expression muscles

Facial (VII) nerve

94

Voluntarily controls ___ muscle

Skeletal

95

Consists of __ motor neuron extending from CNS to Effector (PNS divisions)

1

96

Involuntarily controls glands,smooth and cardiac muscle consists of 2 motor neurons extending from CNS to effector

Ans (autonomic)

97

From CNS synapses with post ganglionic neuron in autonomic ganglion

Preganglionic neuron

98

Extends from autonomic ganglion to effector

Postganglionic neuron

99

Fight or flight

Sympathetic

100

Also known as thoracolumbar division

Sympathetic division

101

Short preganglionic neuron synapse with many long postganglionic neurons in ganglia

Widespread effect

102

All effectors except the ____ gland is controlled by postganglionic neurons

Adrenal gland

103

Located on both sides of vertebral column and consists of white rami and gray rami

Sympathetic trunk

104

Entry points to trunk formed by preganglionic sympathetic neurons at t1-l2 cord levels

White rami

105

Anterior to vertebral column near abdominal arteries

Prevertebral ganglia

106

Also known as craniosacral division formed by parasympathetic preganglionic neurons that originate in brain stem as cranial nerves III,VII,IX,X and spinal cord levels s2-s4

Parasympathetic division

107

Carries 80% of outflow

Vagus nerve

108

Voluntarily controls skeletal muscle consists of _ motor neuron extending from CNS to effector (sns somatic)

1 motor neuron

109

Involuntarily controls glands,smooth and cardiac muscle consists of _motor neurons extending from CNS to effector (and autonomic)

2 motor neurons

110

From CNS synapses with post ganglionic neuron in autonomic ganglion

Preganglionic neuron

111

Fight or flight

Sympathetic

112

Also know as thoracolumbar division

Sympathetic division

113

Short preganglionic neurons synapse with many long postganglionic neurons in ganglia

Widespread effect

114

All effectors except the ____ controlled by postganglionic neurons

Aderental gland

115

Consists of two types of ganglia

Sympathetic trunk and white rami

116

Located in both sides of vertebral column and consists of white rami

Sympathetic trunk

117

Entry points to trunk formed by preganglionic sympathetic neurons at t1-l2 cord levels

White rami

118

Anterior to vertebral column near abdominal arteries

Preverebral ganglia

119

Also know as craniosacral division

Parasympathetic division

120

Fight or flight response produces ATP during physical emotional stress

Sympathetic functions

121

Involves 4 e situations

Emergency,excercise,excitement and embarrassment

122

Increases blood glucose for ATP production by _____ glycogen and fats

Breaking down

123

(Norepinephrine) increase heart rate force of contraction and _____

Blood pressure

124

____ airways increasing breathing rate (norepinephrine)

Dilates

125

___ sweating and dilates pupils (norepinephrine)

Increases

126

____ arrector pilli muscles

Contracts

127

Increases blood flow to ____ by vasodilating blood vessels to skeletal muscles,heart,liver and fat tissue

Essential organs

128

Decreases blood flow to nonessential organs by vasoconstricting blood vessels to ____ & ___ decreasing digestion and urination (sympathetic functions)

Gi tract and kidneys

129

Conserves and restores body energy (parasympathetic)

Rest and digest response

130

Salvation,lacrimation,urination,digestion and defaction (parasympathetic )

Slubb

131

Stories energy by increasing glycogen and ____ (parasympathetic)

Fat production

132

Autonomic reflex consists of

1.receptor
2.sensory neuron
3.intergrating center
4.motor neurons
5.effector

133

________ is the major control and integration center of autonomic nervous system

Hypothalamus

134

Secretion are controlled by
1.
2.
3.

1 nervous system; mostly by negative feedback system(reverse change)
2.chemical changes in blood
3. Other hormones

135

Major link between nervous + endocrine systems

Hypothalamus

136

Controls anterior pituitary by releasing stimulating or inhibitory hormones

Hypothalamus

137

Controls posterior pituitary by neurons

Hypothalamus

138

Anterior portion produces __ hormones + posterior portion stores __ hormones (pituitary gland)

Anterior- 7
Posterior- 2

139

Stimulates protein producing for muscle + bone growth

Human growth hormones (hgh) (anterior pituitary hormones)

140

Hgh increases blood ___ for ATP production by breaking down glycogen fats

Glucose

141

Stimulates thyroid gland

Thyroid stimulating hormone

142

Stimulates milk production.

Prolactin (PRL)

143

Controlled by positive feedback
Stimulates milk enjection

Oxytocin (ot)

144

During dehydrating adh levels increase elevating blood pressure by causing kidneys to retain more water decreasing urine production

Antiduretic hormone (adh)

145

Defection in adh secreation or receptors increasing urine production

Disabeties insipidus

146

Located inferior to larynx

Thyroid gland

147

Cell types for thyroid gland include
____ cells produce t3 + t4

1 follicular

148

Oxygen used by cells

T3+t4 increase metabolic rate

149

Hypothyroidism decreased heart + respiratory rate low body temp

Myxdema

150

___ parafollicular cells produce calcitonin (ct)

2

151

Ct decreased blood ca2+ by ________ ; calcium remains in bone strengthening bones

Inhibitory osteoclast activity

152

Commonly used to treat osteoporosis

Thyroid gland

153

Pth ____ blood ca2+ by stimulating osteoclast breaking down come

Increases

154

______ produce insulin (pancreas)

Beta cells

155

_____ blood glucose stimulates glycogen release causing glycogen break down ____ blood glucose (pancreas)

Low,increasing

156

Stimulates insulin causing glycogen production

High blood glucose

157

By permitting glucose transport into liver cells ____ blood glucose

Decreasing (pancreas)

158

Excessive glycogen converted to fat

Pancreas

159

Most common endocrine disorder involves the inability to produce or use insulin blood glucose levels increasing spilling into urine

Diabetes myelitis

160

Most common type most people are non insulin dependent target cells become less sensitive to insulin often controlled by diet excercise + weight loss

Type 2 diabetes

161

During dehydration raa pathway produces aldosterone

Minerslcorticoids

162

Increases na+ 2 h20 reabsortion (re tension from Kidneys into blood

Mineralcorticoids

163

Increasing excretion removal of k+ into urine

Mineralcorticoids

164

Increases blood volume + blood pressure

Mineralcorticoids

165

Increases blood glucose during stress

Gulcorticoids

166

Anti-inflammatory effect

Glucocorticoids

167

Suppress immune system

Glucocorticoids

168

Commonly used in organ transplants

Glucocorticoids

169

Hyposecrestion of cortisol cause hyperglycemic + weight gain

Cushing syndrome

170

Located in brain

Pineal gland

171

Produces melatonin promotes sleep

Pineal gland

172

Type of depression resulting from overproduction of melatonin

Seasonal affective disorder