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Flashcards in Chapter 16 Deck (18):

legal devices where by the affairs of several rival companies were managed by a single director



one company that controlled every phase of the business from raw materials to transportation, manufacturing, and distribution

vertical integration


leaders' whose energy and vision pushed the economy forward

captains of industry


buying out competing oil refineries

horizontal expansion


leaders who wielded power without any accountability in an unregulated marketplace



lecture from Frederick Jackson Turner, which he argued that on the western frontier the distinctive qualities of American culture were forged: individual freedom, political democracy, and economic mobility

The significance of the frontier in American history


covered thousands of acres and employed large numbers of agricultural wage workers, family farmers still dominated the trans-Mississippi West

bonanza farming


attacking tribalism, took land from Indians and redistributed them and the rest given to whites. It was a huge disaster and 86 million acres taken away from the Indians of the 138 millions acres. land rush

Dawes act


a religious revitalization campaign reminiscent of the pan-Indian movement led by earlier prophets. told of white leaving and Indians returning to all their land. the Indians would dance and on December 29, 1890 soldiers killed 150-200 at wounded knee creek South Dakota

ghost dance


banned all and practices that restrained free trade. companies could no longer work together to eliminate competition

Sherman antitrust act


ensured that the rates railroads charged farmers and merchants to transport their goods were "resonable" and did not offer more favorable treatment to some shippers over others

interstate commerce commission


founded in 1867 made from critics of the railroad; moved to establish cooperatives for storing and marketing farm out put in the hope of forcing the carriers "to take our produce at a fair price"

patrons of husbandry


Charles Darwin theory of evolution and survival of the fittest very natural and the government should not interfere

social darwinism


negative view of freedom as limited government and an unrestrained free market; as long as the individual came to the contract on their own the government could not interfere

liberty of contract


first group to try to organize unskilled as well as skilled, women alongside men, and blacks as well as whites

knights of labor


writings of Walter Rauschenbusch. they insisted that freedom and spiritual self-development required on equalization of wealth and power and that unbridled competition mocked the Christian ideal of brotherhood

social gospel


inspired by a successful strike by western railraod; May 1,1886 became a day for prostest. wage reduction at mccormick plant for iron moulders. May 3, 1886 4 strikers were killed in attempt to prevent them from entering. next day rally held and bomb thrown killing policeman, police opened fire killing by standers and their own. showing the labor movement was dangerous

haymarket affair


the distance separating the two rails making it possible for the first time for two trains of one company to travel on any other company's track

standard gage