Flashcards in Chapter 17 - Nutrition Deck (163)
What is Nutrition?
- The process by which a living organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and repair of tissues.
Give some examples of nutrition topics of discussion for the Fitness Professional.
- Food Preparation Methods
- Food guidance systems (food guide pyramid, myplate)
- Healthy Snacks
- Carbohydrate, Protein, and Fat Basics
- Statistical information on the relationship between chronic disease and the excesses or deficiencies of specific nutrients
- Nutrients contained in foods or supplements
- Vitamins and minerals as essential nutrients
Importance of water and hydration status
What is a Registered Dietician (RD)?
- A specialized food and nutrition expert with extensive training who meets specified criteria
What are the Educational and Professional Requirements for a Registered Dietician?
- Bachelor’s Degree from accredited college or university with coursework approved from Commission on Accreditation for Dietetics Education (CADE)
- Supervised Practice Program: complete a CADE-accredited program (6-12 months in length) with focused practice and study in clinical and community nutrition, and food-service management (graduate study often combined)
- National Examination: Must pass exam in order to receive RD credential
- Continuing Education: must complete CE requirements to maintain active RD credential
What is a calorie (with a lowercased “c”)?
- The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1℃
What is a Calorie (with an uppercased “C”)?
- A unit of expression of energy equal to 1,000 calories. The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram or liter of water 1℃
What is a Kilocalorie?
- A unit of expression of energy equal to 1,000 calories. - The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram or liter of water 1℃
What is Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) / Total Daily Energy Expenditure (TDEE)?
- The amount of energy (calories) spent, on average, in a typical day
- TEE is the sum total of three different energy components:
1. Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR)
2. Thermic Effect of Food (TEF)
3. Energy Expended During Physical Activity
What is Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR)? How much of TEE does it account for?
- The amount of energy expended while at rest; represents the minimal amount of energy required to sustain vital bodily functions such as blood circulation, respiration, and temperature regulation. (relative and constant)
- 70% of TEE in sedentary adults, but varies from person to person.
What are some factors that affect / determine RMR?
- Maintaining muscle mass is important during aging because some of the decline in RMR associated with age is caused by a decline of muscle
4. Hormonal changes
- Example: thyroid hormones influence many metabolic functions throughout the body including fat and carbohydrate metabolism and growth
- High concentrations tend to cause an increase in RMR
5. Body size
6. Body composition
12. Caffeine take
13. Cigarette smoking
What types of medication can affect RMR? Give examples.
1. Certain cardiovascular medications can reduce RMR from 4% to 13%
2. Chemotherapy can reduce RMR 6% to 11%,
3. Long-term use of growth hormone increase RMR by 12%
4. Thyroid medications used in hypothyroidism can increase RMR as much as 17%
What is Basal Metabolic Rate? What can be interchangeably used with? How does it differ?
- A term used when the measurements are taken after the subject has spend the night in a metabolic ward or chambers and has fasted for 12 hours.
- Often used interchangeably with RMR, but RMR is measured after the subject spends the night at home and has to drive to the research lab for measurement
What is the Thermic Effect of Food (TEF)? How much does it account for of TEE? Give an example of how energy is expended via TEF.
- The amount of energy expended above RMR as a result of the processing of food (digestion) for storage and use. (relative and constant)
- TEF typically accounts for approx. 6-10% of TEE
Aka. increased energy expenditure after a meal to:
- Mechanically digest and move food through digestive tract
- Transport nutrients from gut to blood
- Distribute throughout body
Describe Energy Expended During Physical Activity. How much does it account of TEE? What varies the results?
- The amount of energy expended above the RMR and TEF associated with physical activity.
*can be influenced more dramatically than RMR and TEF
- Physical activity accounts for approx. 20% of TEE
- Varies based on individual's current fitness levels and the type, intensity and duration of physical activity or exercise engaged in
What is the most common way to Estimate Total Daily Energy Expenditure?
Step 1: Estimate RMR
weight (lbs) x 10 = RMR
110 (lbs) x 10 = 1,100 RMR
Step 2: Multiply RMR by appropriate activity factor
RMR x activity factor = TEE
1,100 x 1.5 (activity factor) = 1,650 calories expended per day (TEE)
Even most commonly used formulas can have up to a __% variance in overestimating or underestimating RMR and TEE. US Department of Agriculture has online calculators to help estimate TEE.
Describe physical activity factors for adults of average size 19 years or older who's activity factor (range) is 1.2-1.3 (Sedentary Lifestyle).
1.2 - 1.3 Activity Factor
- Very Light
- Seated and standing activities, office work, driving, cooking, no vigorous activity
Describe physical activity factors for adults of average size 19 years or older who's activity factor (range) is 1.5-1.6 (Low-Active Lifestyle).
1.5 - 1.6 Activity Factor
- Low Activity
- In addition to sedentary lifestyle activities, 30 minutes of moderate activity equivalent of walking 2 miles in 30 minutes; most office workers with additional planned exercise routines
Describe physical activity factors for adults of average size 19 years or older who's activity factor (range) is 1.6-1.7.
1.6 - 1.7 Activity Factor
- In addition to low active lifestyle activities, an additional 3 hours of activity such as bicycle 10-12 miles an hour, walk 4.5 miles an hour
Describe physical activity factors for adults of average size 19 years or older who's activity factor (range) is 1.9-2.1.
1.9 - 2.1 Activity Factor
- Planned vigorous activities, physical labor, full-time athletes, hard-labor professions such as steel or road workers
Amino acids linked by peptide bonds
What is Protein's Primary Function? What else is protein involved in?
- Primary Function: to build and repair body tissues and structures
- Involved in the synthesis of hormones, enzymes, and other regulatory peptides
1 gram of protein yields _ calories
The structure of protein is approximately __ amino acids linked together by peptide bonds to build many different proteins.
20 amino acids
Can Essential Amino Acids be manufactured in the body in sufficient amounts? Where is it obtained?
- Cannot be manufactured in the body (or are manufactured in insufficient amounts)
- Must be obtained from the food supply or other exogenous source
How many essential amino acids are there?
- 8 essential amino acids
How does the body manufacture Nonessential Amino Acids?
- The body is able to manufacture them from dietary nitrogen and fragments of carbs and fats
List the two semi-essential amino acids that cannot be manufactured by body at a rate that will support growth, especially in children.
List the 8 Essential Amino Acids.