Flashcards in Chapter 8 - Cardiorespiratory Concepts Deck (56):
What is cardiorespiratory fitness?
The ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen-rich blood to skeletal muscles during sustained physical activity.
What is Integrated Cardiorespiratory Training?
Cardiorespiratory training programs that systematically progresses clients through various stages to achieve optimal levels of physiologic, physical, and performance adaptations by placing stress on the cardiorespiratory system.
Why is Rate of Progression important to monitor?
- Critical to helping clients achieve their personal health and fitness goals in the most efficient and effective use of time and energy.
- If progression is too fast, could lead to injury
- If progression it too slow, could lead to poor exercise adherence.
True or False: An individual's cardiorespiratory fitness level is one of the strongest predictors of morbidity and mortality.
What does the Warm-Up Phase do?
Warm-Up Phase: Prepares the body for physical activity.
Describe the General Warm-Up Phase. Give an example.
General Warm-Up Phase: Low-intensity exercise consisting of movement that do not necessarily relate to the intense exercise that is to follow.
- Example: Walking on treadmill or riding a stationary bike before weight training
Describe the Specific Warm-Up Phase. Give an example.
Specific Warm-Up Phase: Low-intensity exercise consisting of movements that mimic those that will be included in the more intense exercise that is to follow.
- Example: Performing body weight squats and push-ups before weight training
Describe the cardiorespiratory portion of Warm-Up Phase:
- Typically lasts between 5-10 minutes
- Consists of whole-body, dynamic cardiovascular or muscular movements
- (well below the anticipated training intensity threshold for conditioning).
What is the purpose of the Warm-Up Phase?
- Increase Heart and Respiratory Rates
- Increase tissue temperature
- Psychologically prepare the individual for high training intensities.
List three types of Warm-Up Activities.
1. Self Myofascial Release
2. Static (Active-Isolated or Dynamic) Stretching
3. Cardio Exercise
True or False: For new clients who are sedentary, have health limitations, or those with limited previous exercise experience may require half or more of their dedicated workout time to be directed towards warm-up activities.
How long should a person spend on each muscle during the use of SMR (in any phase of the OPT Model)?
How long should a person spend on each muscle during Static Stretching (Stabilization Phase Warm-Up)?
For stabilization level warm-up, how long should a person spend on cardiorespiratory exercise (CRE) (in any phase of the OPT Model)?
How long should a person spend on each muscle during Active-Isolated Stretching (Strength Phase Warm-Up)?
- 5-10 reps for each muscle
How long should a person spend on each muscle during Dynamic Stretching (Power Phase Warm-Up)? How can it be performed where it can eliminate the need for CRE Warm-Up?
- 10 repetitions of each side
- Can be performed in circuit format, one after another, which eliminates CRE!
List some benefits of cardiorespiratory exercise.
1. Stronger, more efficient heart
2. Reduced risk of heart disease
3. Lower resting heart rate
4. Lower heart rate at any given level of work
5. Improvement of lung ventilation (more efficient breathing)
6. Stronger respiratory muscles (ex. intercostals)
*7. Thicker articular cartilage and bones with weight-bearing aerobic exercises
8. Improved oxygen transport
*9. Reduced cholesterol levels
10. Reduced arterial blood pressure
*11. Improved fuel supply (improved ability to use fatty acids, sparing muscle glycogen stores....GREAT FOR WEIGHT-LOSS CLIENTS)
12. Improved ability of muscles to use oxygen
*13. Improved mental alertness
*14. Reduced tendency for depression and anxiety
15. Improved ability to relax and sleep
16. Improved tolerance to stress
*17. Increase in lean body mass
*18. Increase in metabolic rate
19. Reduced risk of obesity or diabetes mellitus
What is the purpose of a Cool-Down Phase?
Provides the body with a smooth transition from exercise back to a steady state of rest
What are the goals/benefits of the Cool-Down Phase?
1. Reduce heart and breathing rates
2. Gradually cool body temperature
3. Return muscles to their optimal length-tension relationships
***4.*** Prevent venous pooling of blood in lower extremities (which may cause dizziness or fainting)
5. Restore physiologic systems close to baseline
What is a sufficient amount of time for the Cool-Down Phase?
What are some physiological changes that occur during exercise?
During intense, vigorous exercise:
1. circulation of blood increases up to as much as 80-85% of cardiac output (at rest, usually only 15-20% of circulating blood reaches cardiac muscle)
2. Blood is shunted away from major organs (kidneys, liver, stomach and intestines) and redirected to skin to promote heat loss
3. Blood plasma volume also decreases with the onset of exercise and as exercise continues, increased blood pressure forces water from the vascular compartment to the interstitial space (during prolonged, plasma volume can decrease as much as 10-20%)
What does the FITTE principle stand for?
Frequency: number of training session in a given timeframe
Intensity: The level of demand hat a given activity places on the body
Time: The length of time an individual is engaged in a given activity
Type: The type or mode of physical activity that an individual is engaged in
Enjoyment: The amount of pleasure derived from performing a physical activity
What are 6 ways to determine, identify, and monitor cardiorespiratory training?
1. Peak VO2 Method
2. VO2 Reserve Method
3. Peak Metabolic Equivelent Method (MET)
4. Peak Maximal Heart Rate Method
5. HR Reserve Method (HRR)
6. Ratings of Perceived Exertion Method (RPE)
What is Maximal Oxygen Consumption (VO2max)?
The highest rate of oxygen transport and utilization achieved at maximal physical exertion.
(Maximal volume of oxygen pe kilogram of body weight per minute)
What is Oxygen Uptake Reserve (VO2R)?
The difference between resting and maximal or peak oxygen consumption
Higher intensity exercise of greater than __% VO2max is generally required for improvement in overall fitness and conditioning.
What is the Peak VO2 Method? Why is it not the preferred method of
- traditional gold standard for measuring cardiorespiratory fitness via VO2 max (maximal volume of oxygen per kilogram of body weight per minute)
- Difficult to measure because requires client to perform cardiorespiratory exercise at maximal effort and sophisticated equipment to monitor the clients ventilation response (O2 consumed and CO2 expire)
If moderate intensity of cardiorespiratory fitness is desired, what VO2max percentage should a person strive towards.
Less than 60% of VO2max
What is the VO2 Reserve Method? What is the calculation?
- Preferred method of identifying and monitoring CRE
Target VO2R = [(VO2max - VO2rest) x intensity desired] + VO2rest
- VO2 rest is usually predicted - estimated at 1 MET or 3.5mL O2 x kg-1 x min-1)
- Intensity Desired between 65-95%
What is the Peak Metabolic Equivalent Method (MET)? What is a MET? Give an example.
- One metabolic equivalent or MET is equal to 3.5mL O2 x kg-1 x min-1 or the equivalent of the average resting metabolic rate (RMR) for adults
- Used to describe the energy cost of physical activity as multiple of resting metabolic rate
- Example: individual with a MET of 4 (slow-paced jogging) would require 4 times the energy than that of a person at rest
What is the Peak Maximal Heart Rate Method?
Most commonly used formula to determine HRmax is (220 - age)
MHR / HRmax = (220 - age)
What is the HR Reserve Method (HRR)? What is the calculation used?
- aka. Karvonen Method
- Establishing training intensity based on the difference between the client's predicted maximal heart rate and their resting heart rate (selecting THR based on a given % of O2 consumption)
THR = [(HRmax - HRrest) x desired intensity + HRrest
Example: 25yr old client with a desired training intensity of 85% of HRmax, with resting HR of 40bpm
220-25 = 195 HRmax
THR = [(195 - 40) x 0.85) + 40
THR = [155 x 0.85] + 40
THR =  + 40
THR = 172 bpm
Describe the Ratings of Perceived Exertion Method (RPE). How is it determined?
- Used to express or validate how hard a client feels he/she is working (subjectively rates perceived difficulty) during exercise
- Based off physical sensations a person experiences during physical activity (Increase in heart rate, respiration rate, sweating, overall muscle fatigue...not just isolated areas in the body)
- 6 = No Exertion At All
- 20 = Max Exertion
What is the Talk Test Method?
- Informal method used to gauge exercise training intensity during exercise
- Example: client is probably exercising too hard if client cannot carry on a simple conversation during exercise (b/c breathing too hard)
What is the Ventilatory Threshold (Tvent)?
The point during graded exercise in which ventilation increases disproportionately to oxygen uptake, signifying a switch from predominately aerobic energy production to anaerobic energy production.
What is the recommended amount of time per week an individual should be engaged in Moderate-Intensity Aerobic Activity? Give an example.
- 2hrs and 30mins (150mins) of moderate-intensity activity every week
- Example: Brisk Walking
What is the recommended amount of time per week an individual should be engaged in Vigorous-Intensity Aerobic Activity? Give an example.
- 1hr and 15 mins (75mins) of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity every week
- Example: Running or Jogging
What are the three types of criteria that must be met for an activity or exercise to be considered "aerobic" exercise? Give examples.
1. Rhythmic in Nature
2. Use Large Muscle Groups
3. Continuous in Nature
- Running or Jogging
- Exercising on Cardio Equipment
What is the purpose of Stage Training?
- to ensure that cardiorespiratory programs progress in an organized fashion to ensure continual adaptation and to minimize the risk of injury and overtraining (the three different stages of cardiorespiratory training uses three heart rate training zones).
What is overtraining?
Excessive frequency, volume, or intensity or training resulting in fatigue (which is also caused by lack of proper rest and recovery).
Stage I of Cardiorespiratory Training is designed for what type of client? What are the guidelines?
- Designed to help improve cardiorespiratory fitness levels in apparently healthy, sedentary clients using a target heart rate of 65-75% of HRmax or approx. 12-13 on the RPE scale
1. Should be able to hold a conversation
2. Start slowly and graduation work up to 30-60 minutes of continuous exercise in zone 1
3. Maintain zone 1 HR for at least 30 minutes, 2-3x/week, then can progress to Stage 2
4. Example: if client has never exercised before, might start in zone 1 for only 5 minutes, slowly progress up to 30 minutes.
Stage II of Cardiorespiratory Training is designed for what type of client? What is the focus?
- Designed for clients with low-to-moderate cardiorespiratory fitness levels who are ready to begin training at higher intensity levels
- Focus: Increasing the workload (speed, incline, level) in a way that will help the client alter heart rate in and out of zone 1 and zone 2
What is the process of Stage II of Cardiorespiratory Training?
1. Start by warming up in zone 1 for 5-10 minutes
2. Move into 1-minute internal in zone 2
- gradually increase workload to raise heart rate up to zone two within that minute
- once heart rate reaches zone 2 of maximal heart rate, maintain it for the rest of the minute
- example: it might take 45s to reach that heart rate, which means the client will only be at the top end for 15 seconds before reducing the workload (speed, incline, or level) and returning to zone 1
3. After the 1-min interval, return to zone 1 for 3 minutes
4. Repeat this if the client has time and can recover back into the zone 1 range
What is the most important part of interval Cardiorespiratory training?
To recover back to zone 1 between intervals
What are some questions to ask the client with Stage 2 interval training?
1. Did the client get into a zone 2 heart rate?
2. Was it easy?
3. Could he/she maintain heart rate and if so, for how long (also make sure client was pushing hard enough and didn't progress the workload too slowly)
If a client was not able to reach the predicted HR of zone 2 in 1 minute, what heart rate should he/she use?
Use the heart rate he/she was able to reach as his/her 85%, take 9% off this number to get the lower end of the client's readjusted zone
- If 150 bpm was the predicted 85% of HRmax, but client was only able to work up to 145 bpm during the 1-min interval push, then 145bpm should now be considered that client's 85% of HRmax
- Take 9% off of 145% (9% of 145 beats is 13 beats; 145-13 = 132)
- 132 bpm s the individual's 76% of HRmax
If the client's heart rate goes above the predicted zone and he/she can still recover back to zone 1 at the end, what should be done?
- add a couple of bpm to the zone and then work on increasing the time
Give an example of One Month Plan of Interval Training for Stage II.
*Important to alternate days of the week with Stage 1 Training; alternating sessions every workout
- FIRST and THIRD weeks
Stage I on Monday
Stage II on Wednesday
Stage I on Friday
- SECOND and FOURTH weeks
Stage II on Monday
Stage I on Wednesday
Stage II on Friday
Describe Stage III of Cardiorespiratory Training:
- What type of client will use this level?
- What's the main focus?
- Advanced client who has a moderately high cardiorespiratory fitness level base and will use heart rate zones one, two, and three
- Focus: further increasing the workload (speed, incline, level) in a way that will help the client alter heart rate in and out of each zone.
- This training increases the capacity of the energy systems needed at the power level of the OPT model.
What is the Process of Stage III Cardiorespiratory Training? - REREAD - I THINK THE ANSWER IS WRONG
Zone One: Approx. 1 - 10 minutes
Zone Two: Approx. 2 minutes
Zone Three: Approx. 1 minute
(progressing through zones 1-3 the first time around should take approx. 10 minutes total)
Zone Two: Approx. 1 minute (interval recovery)
Zone Three: Approx. 1 minute (interval push/overload)
If heart rate drops to a normal rate, then overload the body again and go to the next zone,
1. Warm up in zone one for up to 10 minutes.
2. Increase the workload every 60 seconds until reaching zone three. This will require a SLOW CLIMB through zone two for at least 2 minutes.
3. After pushing for another minute in zone three, decrease the workload. This 1-min break is an important minute to help gauge improvement.
4. Drop the client's workload down to the level he/she was just working in, before starting the zone 3 interval. During this minute, the heart rate will drop.
5. As improvements are made during several weeks of training, the heart rate will drop more quickly. The faster the heart rate drops, the stronger the heart is getting.
6. If the client is not able to drop to the appropriate heart rate during the 1-minute break, assume that he/she is tired and is about to OVER TRAIN!
Rotating all three stages, low stage (stage I), medium (stage II), and high-intensity (stage III), helps minimize the risk of overtraining and helps achieve the best results for CRT.
Give a Monthly training example of how to rotate the three stages.
Weeks One and Three:
- Stage I - MON
- Stage II - WED
- Stage III - FRI
Weeks Two and Four:
- Stage II - MON
- Stage I - WED
- Stage III - FRI
There are three zones in CRE; what are they? What are their corresponding HRmax percentage ranges and give an example of each.
Zone One: 65-75% of HRmax - Walking/Jogging
Zone Two: 76-85% of HRmax - Group Exercise Classes (like spin)
Zone Three: 86-95% of HRmax -Sprinting
What is the purpose of circuit training?
- Allows for comparable fitness results without spending extended periods of time to achieve them.
- Just as beneficial as traditional forms of CRE but results in higher postexercise metabolic rates and strength levels.
For clients who have rounded shoulders and/or forward head posture (Upper Crossed Syndrome), what are areas the Personal Trainer should look for?
- During use of stationary bikes, treadmills, and elliptical trainers, watch closely for rounding of shoulders forward and a protruding (jutting) head
- On steppers and treadmills, watch for GRASPING on the handles (w/ oversupinated or overpronated hand position) which will cause elevated and protracted shoulders and a forward head (if possible, have client not use hand rails to add for stabilization, elevate caloric expenditure and balance requirements.
For clients who have an anteriorly rotated pelvis and arched lower back (Lower Crossed Syndrome), what are areas the Personal Trainer should look for?
- Corrective flexibility for the hip flexors should be emphasized before and after use.
- Initial use of bicycles or steppers may not be warranted, as the hips are placed in a constant state of flexion, adding to shortened hip flexor complex.
- Treadmill speed should be kept to a controllable pace to avoid over-striding. The hips may not be able to properly extend and may cause the lower back to overextend (arch), placing increased stress on the low back.