Chapter 6 - Fitness Assessment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 - Fitness Assessment Deck (48):
1

What is a Fitness Assessment?

Involves a series of measurements that help to determine the current health and fitness levels of clients

2

What is the purpose of conducting Fitness Assessment? How does a trainer decide which tests to conduct?

-Helps maintain and monitor fitness goals if a baseline is set
-Observe and document structural and functional status
-Specific tests used in fitness assessment depends on health and fitness goals of individual, the trainer’s experience, the type of workout routines being performed and availability of equipment

3

Guidelines for Health and Fitness Professionals:
the DO NOTs
(what Health and Fitness Professionals DON'T do)

-Diagnose medical conditions
-Prescribe treatment
-Prescribe diets
-Provide treatment of any kind for injury or disease
-Provide rehabilitation services for clients
-Provide counseling services for clients

4

Guidelines for Health and Fitness Professionals:
the DOs
(what Health and Fitness Professionals DO do)

-Obtain exercise or health guidelines from a physician, physical therapist, or registered dietitian
-Follow national consensus guidelines of exercise prescription for medical disorders
-Screen clients for exercise limitations
-Identify potential risk factors for clients from screening procedures
-Refer clients who experience difficulty or pain or exhibit other symptoms to a qualified medical practitioner

5

What does SUBJECTIVE INFORMATION provide within a fitness assessment?

General and Medication History including:
Occupation, Lifestyle, and Medical History
PAR-Q

6

Why is it important to ask a client's OCCUPATION and what kind of information does it provide?

-Common movement patterns
-Energy expenditure levels during an average day
-Helps understand musculoskeletal structure and function
-Helps determine potential health and physical limitation and restrictions

7

What are some key factors to ask about/be aware of when asking about a client's occupation?

1. Extended Periods of Sitting:
-Hips are flexed for long periods of time = tight hip flexors and postural imbalances within HMS
-Shoulder and head fatigue easily because under constant effect of gravity = postural imbalances (rounded shoulders and forward head)

2. Low Energy Expenditure: most likely poor cardiorespiratory conditioning

3. Repetitive Movements: can cause musculoskeletal injury and dysfunction

4. Shoes (example: High heels = plantar flexed position for a long period of time = tightness, postural imbalance, decreased motion)

5. Mental Stress:
-Elevated heart rate
-Effects Blood pressure and ventilation at rest and exercise
-Abnormal breathing patterns = musculoskeletal and postural imbalances in neck, shoulder, chest and lower back

8

What does OBJECTIVE INFORMATION provide within a fitness assessment?

1. Resting and exercise physiological measurements ( blood pressure and heart rate)
2. Resting anthropometric measurements (height, weight, body fat %, circumference measurements)
3. Specific measures of fitness (muscular endurance, flexibility, cardiorespiratory fitness)

9

Why is it important to ask a client's LIFESTYLE and what kind of information does it provide?

1. Recreation: physical activities outside of the work environment "leisure time" - golf, ski, tennis, etc - gives general idea about other athleticism outside of gym / motivation towards enhancing performance - example: "better golf swing"
2. Hobbies: not necessarily athletic in nature (gardening, working on cars, playing cards, watching TV, videogames, etc) - may help as a motivational tool

10

Why is it important to ask a client's MEDICAL HISTORY and what kind of information does it provide?

1. Past Injuries: strong predictor of future musculskeletal injury during physical activity
2. Past Surgeries: surgical procedures create trauma and may have similar effects on the functioning of the HMS as that of an injury (can cause pain an inflammation that can alter neural control to the affected muscles and joints if not rehabilitated properly
3. Chronic Conditions: risk of chronic disease dramatically increase with lack of physical fitness
4. Medications: meds may have an effect on the way the body (heart rate and blood pressure) as well as the way it may react to exercise

11

What effect do ANKLE SPRAIN injuries have on the functioning of the HMS?

1. Decreases the neural control to the gluteus medius and gluteus maximus muscles
2. Can lead to poor control of the lower extremities during functional activities (which can lead to injury)

12

What effect do KNEE injuries have on the functioning of the HMS?

1. Decreases the neural control to muscles that stabilize the patella (kneecap) and lead to further injury
2. Non-contact knee injuries are often the result of ankle or hip dysfunctions, (example: result of ankle sprain)
3. Can result in altered movement and force distribution o the knee

13

What effect do LOW BACK injuries have on the functioning of the HMS?

1. Decreases neural control to the stabilizing muscles of the core, resulting in poor stabilization o the spine
2. can lead to further dysfunction of upper and lower extremities

14

What effect do SHOULDER injuries have on the functioning of the HMS?

Cause altered neural control of the rotator cuff muscles which can lead to instability of the shoulder joint during functional activities

15

What are some OTHER types of injuries that may have on the functioning of the HMS / muscle imbalances?

Repetitive Hamstring Strains, Groin Strains, Patellar Tendonitis (jumper's knee), Plantar Fasciitis (pain in the heel and bottom of the foot), Posterior Tibialis Tendonitis (shin splint), Biceps Tendonitis (shouder pain), and headaches

16

What are Beta-Blockers generally prescribed for? What does it do to a person's heart rate? Blood pressure?

1. Anti-hypertensive (high blood pressure) and Arrhythmias (irregular heart beat)
2. HR: decreases
3. BP: decreases

17

What are Calcium-Channel Blockers generally prescribed for? What does it do to a person's heart rate? Blood pressure?

1. Hypertension and Angina (Chest Pain)
2. HR: may increase or decrease or no effect ?
3. BP: decreases

18

What are Nitrates generally prescribed for? What does it do to a person's heart rate? Blood pressure?

1. Hypertension and Congestive Heart Failure
2. HR: may increase or have no effect
3. BP: may decrease or have no effect

19

What are Diuretics generally prescribed for? What does it do to a person's heart rate? Blood pressure?

1. Hypertension, Congestive Heart Failure, Peripheral Edema
2. HR: no effect
3. BP: may decrease or have no effect

20

What are Bronchodilators generally prescribed for? What does it do to a person's heart rate? Blood pressure?

1. To correct prevent bronchial smooth muscle constriction in individuals with asthma and other pulmonary diseases
2. HR: no effect - really?!
3. BP: no effect

21

What are Vasodilators generally prescribed for? What does it do to a person's heart rate? Blood pressure?

1. Hypertension and Congestive Heart Failure
2. HR: may increase or decrease or no effect ?
3. BP: may decrease

22

What are antidepressants generally prescribed for? What does it do to a person's heart rate? Blood pressure?

1. Various psychiatric and emotional disorders
2. HR: may increase or have no effect
3. BP: may decrease or have no effect

23

How should a resting heart rate be tested?

Right when they wake up, 3 mornings in a row (take average)

24

What is the purpose of Target Heart Rate Training Zone 1?

Builds aerobic base and aids in recovery

25

What is the purpose of Target Heart Rate Training Zone 2?

Increases aerobic and anaerobic endurance

26

What is the purpose of Target Heart Rate Training Zone 3?

Builds high-end work capacity

27

How do you determine a client's estimated maximal heart rate or HRmax?

-Subtract client's age by 220
example: 220 - 31 = 189

28

What is the Straight Percentage Method to determine Peak Maximal Heart Rate or Target Heart Rate (THR)?

-HRmax multiplied by appropriate intensity (65-95%)
example: 189 (x) 0.75 (zone 1) = 141.75 THR

29

How do you determine which "Target Heart Rate Zone" your client should be in?

Based off of "3-Minute Step Test" results

30

What are the percentage ranges for each zone for Target Heart Rate?

Zone 1: 0.65-0.75
Zone 2: 0.76-0.85
Zone 3: 0.86-0.95

31

What is the HR Reserve (HRR) method or the Karvonen Method?

A method of establishing training intensity on the basis of the difference between a client's predicted maximal heart rate and their resting heart rate.

32

What is the formula for the HR Reserve (HRR) method or the Karvonen Method?

THR = [ (HRmax - HRrest) x desired intensity] + HRrest
example:
THR = [(189 - 63) x 0.75] + 63
THR = [126 x 0.75] + 63
THR = [94.5] + 63
THR = 157.5 bpm

33

Name 6 body composition assessments.

1. Skinfold Measurment
2. Bioelectrical Impedance
3. Underwater Weighing (hydrostatic weighing)
4. Circumference Measurements
5. Waist-To-Hip
6. BMI

34

What is a skinfold (SKF) measurement? What does it show? How many places do you record and where (and what side of the body)?

1. uses a caliper to estimate the amount of subcutaneous fat beneath the skin
2. 4 places - Biceps (vertical), Triceps (vertical), Subscapular (45* angle), Iliac Crest (45* angle)
4. Right side of body

35

What is bioelectrical impedance?

1. A portable instrument used to conduct an electrical current through the body to estimate fat

36

What areas need to be measured for accuracy of circumference measurements?

Neck, Chest, Waist, Hips, Thighs, Calves, Biceps

37

Why is a waist-to-hip ratio important?

there is a correlation between chronic diseases and fat stored in the midsection.

38

A ratio greater than _.__ for women and _.__ for men may put these individuals at risk for a number of diseases.

0.80 for women
0.95 for men

39

How do you determine a client's Body Mass Index (BMI)?

BMI = [weight (lbs) / Height (inches squared)] x 703
or
BMI = Weight (kg) / Height (meters squared)

EXAMPLE:
BMI = [108 / (64)x(64)] x 703
BMI = [108 / 4096] x 703
BMI = 0.2636719 x 703
BMI = 18.5361328
BMI = 18.54

40

What is the disease risk for someone with a BMI of less than 18.5? What is their weight classification?

1. Increased risk for disease
2. "Underweight"

41

What is the disease risk for someone with a BMI of 18.6-21.99? What is their weight classification?

1. Low risk for disease
2. "Acceptable"

42

What is the disease risk for someone with a BMI of 22-24.99? What is their weight classification?

1. Very low risk for disease
2. "Acceptable"
3. IDEAL BMI RANGE

43

What is the disease risk for someone with a BMI of 25-29.99? What is their weight classification?

1. Increase risk for disease
2. "Overweight"

44

What is the disease risk for someone with a BMI of 30-34.99? What is their weight classification?

1. High risk for disease
2. "Obese"

45

What is the disease risk for someone with a BMI of 35-39.99? What is their weight classification?

1. Very high risk for disease
2. "Obesity II"

46

What is the disease risk for someone with a BMI of more than 40? What is their weight classification?

1. Extremely high risk for disease
2. "Obesity III"

47

What are the two main cardiorespiratory assessments?

1. YMCA 3-Minute Step Test
2. Rockport Walk Test

48

How do you conduct a YMCA 3-Minute Step Test?

Step 1: have client perform 96 steps/minute on a 12-inch step for a total of 3 minutes. It is important to stay consistent with steps (metronome or counting out loud may be necessary)
Step 2: Within 5 seconds of completing the exercise, measure client's resting heart rate for a period of 60 seconds and record it as the "recovery pulse"
Step 3: Locate the recovery pulse number on designated chart based off correct categories