Chapter 5 - Human Movement Science Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 - Human Movement Science Deck (56)
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1

Biomechanics

-the study of applying laws of mechanics and physics to determine how forces affect human movement and to better predict performance in athletic events.
-The science concerned with the internal and external forces acting on the human body and the effects produced by these forces.

2

Superior

Positioned above a point of reference.

3

Inferior

Positioned below a point of reference.

4

Proximal

Positioned nearest the center of the body, or point of reference.

5

Distal

Positioned farthest from the center of the body, or point of reference.

6

Anterior (or Ventral)

On the front of the body (usually point of reference is anatomic position).

7

Posterior (or Dorsal)

On the back of the body (usually point of reference is anatomic position).

8

Medial

Positioned near the middle of the body (usually point of reference is anatomic position).

9

Lateral

Positioned toward the outside of the body (usually point of reference is anatomic position).

10

Contralateral

Positioned on the opposite side of the body.

11

Joint motion

Movement in a plane occurs on an axis running perpendicular to the plane.

12

Ipsilateral

Positioned on the same side of the body.

12

What are the three imaginary planes the body is divided into?

1. Sagittal Plane
2. Frontal Plane
3. Transverse Plane

13

Anatomic Position

The position with the body erect with the arms at the sides and the palms forward. The anatomic position is of importance in anatomy because it is the position of reference for anatomic nomenclature. Anatomic terms such as anterior and posteriod, medial and lateral, and abduction and adduction apply to the body when it is in the anatomic position.

14

Sagittal Plane

-An imaginary bisector that divides the body into left and right halves.
-Occurs around Coronal Axis
-Movement: flexion and extension.
-Examples of predominately Sagittal Plane Movements:
*bicep curls, triceps pushdowns, squats, front lunges, calf raises, walking, running, vertical jump, climbing stairs, shooting a basketball.

15

Flexion

A bending movement in which the relative angle between two adjacent segments decreases.

16

Extension

A straightening movement in which the relative angle between two adjacent segments increases.

17

Hyperextension

Extension of a joint beyond normal limit or range of motion.

18

Frontal Plane

-An imaginary bisector that divides the body into front and back halves.
-Occurs around an anterior-posterior axis
-Movements: abduction and adduction
-Examples of predominately Frontal Plane Movements:
* side lateral raises, side lunges, side shuffling

19

Abduction

-A movement in the frontal plane away from the midline of the body (usually point of reference is anatomic position).
-An increase in the angle between two adjoining segments, but the frontal plane
-Example: side bend (lateral flexion of spine) away from midline

20

Adduction

-Movement in the frontal plane back toward the midline of the body (usually point of reference is anatomic position).
-A decrease in the angle between two adjoining segments, but in the frontal plane.
-Example: Shoulder adduction (moves hand from above head back down to side next to hip)

21

Transverse Plane

-An imaginary bisector that divides the body into top and bottom halves.
-Occurs around a longitudinal or vertical axis
-Movements: internal and external rotation (of limbs), right and left Rotation (head and trunk), horizontal abduction and adduction of the limbs, radioulnar (forearm) pronation and supination.
-Examples of predominately Transverse Plane Movements:
* cable trunk rotations, dumbbell chest fly, throwing a ball, throwing a frisbee, and swinging a bat.

22

Internal Rotation

Rotation of a joint toward the middle of the body.

23

External Rotation

Rotation of a joint away from the middle of the body.

24

Horizontal Abduction

Movement of the arm or thigh in the transverse plane from an anterior position to a lateral position.

25

Horizontal Adduction

Movement of the arm or thigh in the transverse plane from a lateral position to an anterior position.

26

What are the primary Scapular movements?

1. Retraction (adduction)
2. Protraction (abduction)
3. Elevation
4. Depression

27

Scapular Retraction

Adduction of scapula; shoulder blades move toward the midline (closer together).

28

Scapular Protraction

Abduction of scapula; shoulder blades move away from the midline (away from each other).

29

Scapular Depression

Downward (inferior) motion of the scapula (shoulder blades move downwards).