Flashcards in Chapter 13 - Resistance Training Concepts Deck (73):
What is the principle of adaptation?
The ability of the human body to respond and adapt to an exercise stimulus.
**One of the most important concepts of training and conditioning**
What are the PHYSIOLOGIC benefits from resistance training?
- Improved cardiovascular efficiency
- Beneficial endocrine (hormone) and serum lipid (cholesterol) adaptations
- Increased bone density
- Increases metabolic efficiency (metabolism)
What are the PHYSICAL benefits from resistance training?
- Increased tissue (muscles, tendons, ligaments) tensile strength
- Increased cross-sectional area of muscle fiber
- Decreased body fat
What are the PERFORMANCE benefits from resistance training?
- Increased neuromuscular control (coordination)
- Increased endurance
- Increased strength
- Increased power
What is General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)?
- A term used to describe how the body responds and adapts to stress.
- For adaptations to occur, the body must be confronted with a stress or some form of stress that creates the need for a response.
What is the Alarm Reaction Stage (within GAS)?
- The initial reaction to a stressor
Describe the changes to the body during initial sessions of resistance training programs.
The body is forced to try and adapt to increased amounts of force on bone, joints, muscles, connective tissues, an the nervous system.
The Alarm Reaction Stage activates a number of physiological and psychological protective processes within the body. List them.
Physiological: Increase in
- Blood Supply
- Neural recruitment to the working muscles
- Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS)
What is Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS)?
Pain or discomfort often felt 24 to 72 hours after intense exercise or unaccustomed physical activity.
Describe the Resistance Development Stage (within GAS).
- The body increases its functional capacity to adapt to the stressor
- Once adaptation has occurred, body will require increased stress or overload to produce a new response and a high level of fitness
(HMS will increase its capability to efficiently recruit muscle fibers and distribute oxygen and blood to the proper areas of the body)
How does one increase stress on the body after the body has adapted to the initial stressor?
Adjust Acute Variables:
- Rest Periods
- Exercise Selection
What is the Exhaustions Stage (within GAS)?
Prolonged stress or stress that is intolerable and will produce exhaustion or distress to the system.
When a stressor is too much for one of the physiologic systems to handle it cause breakdown or injury such as:
- Stress Fractures
- Muscle Strains
- Joint Pain
- Emotional Fatigue
How does the OPT Model help avoid the Exhaustion Stage of GAS?
- Periodization: division of a training program into smaller, progressive stages
What does the acronym SAID stand for?
What is the Principle of Specificity (SAID Principle)?
Principle that states the body will adapt to specific demands that are placed on it
If someone repeatedly lifts heavy weights, that person will produce higher levels of _____ _____.
If someone repeatedly lifts lighter weight for many reps, that person will develop higher levels of ____ _____.
Type I slow twitch fibers are ____ in diameter, _____ to produce maximal tension, and _____ resistant to fatigue.
(In comparison to Type II fast twitch)
Type I slow twitch fibers are important for muscles that need to produce long-term contractions necessary for ________, _______, and postural control.
Type II fast twitch muscle fibers are ______ in diameter, ____ to produce maximal tension, and _____ more quickly.
(In comparison to Type I slow twitch)
- Faster / Quick
What is Mechanical Specificity? Give examples of how it relates to muscular endurance and maximal strength.
Refers to the weight and movements placed on the body
- Example: To develop muscular endurance of the legs requires light weights and high reps.
- Example: To develop maximal strength in the chest, heavy weights must be used in chest-related exercises
What is Neuromusclar Specifity? Give examples of how to develop higher levels of stability, strength, and power.
Refers to the speed of contraction and exercise selection.
- STABILITY (example while pushing): chest exercises will need to be performed with controlled, unstable exercises at slower speeds
- STRENGTH: exercises should be performed in more stable environments with heavier loads to place more emphasis on the prime movers.
- POWER: low-weight, high-velocity contractions must be performed in a plyometric manner.
What is Metabolic Specificity? Give examples of how to develop endurance, and maximal strength or power. What type of pathway are each using (aerobic vs anaerobic pathways).
The energy demand placed on the body
- ENDURANCE: training will require prolonged bouts of exercise with minimal rest periods in between sets (primarily use aerobic pathways to supple energy for the body)
- MAXIMAL STRENGTH / POWER: training will require longer rest period, so the intensity of each bout of the exercise remains high (energy primarily supplied via the anaerobic pathways)
For a weight-loss clients, describe how to achieve Mechanical Specificity.
- Use Moderate Weights
- Standing versus Seated exercises (body burns more calories when movements are performed while standing versus seated or lying positions)
- Exercise: Standing Cable Rows versus Seated Cable Rows
For a weight-loss clients, describe how to achieve Neuromuscular Specificity.
- The body burns more calories when more muscles are being used form longer periods in controlled, unstable environments.
- Exercise: Single-Leg Dumbbell Shoulder Press versus Seated Machine Shoulder Press
For a weight-loss clients, describe how to achieve Metabolic Specificity.
- The body burns more calories when rest periods are short top minimize full recuperation.
- Exercise: have client perform resistance training exercises in a circuit fashion with no rests between sets
Describe stabilization and the importance of stabilization resistance training.
- The HMS's ability to provide optimal dynamic joint support to maintain correct posture during all movements.
- It increases the ability of the kinetic chain to stabilize the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex and joints during movement to allow the arms and legs to work more efficiently
Describe Muscular Endurance and its importance in all fitness programs.
- The ability to produce and maintain force production for prolonged periods of time
- Increase core and joint stability (foundation for hypertrophy, strength and power)
- Focuses on the recruitment of muscle responsible for postural stability (Type I)
What is the most effective way to improve Muscular Endurance?
Resistance training protocols with high reps
Describe Muscular Hypertrophy.
Enlargement of skeletal muscular fibers in response to overcoming force from high volumes of tension.
What is the most effective way to improve/achieve Muscular Hypertrophy?
Resistance training protocols that use low-to-intermediate rep ranges with progressive overload with multiple sets will help increase musculoskeletal hypertrophy.
The ability of the neuromuscular system to produce internal tension (on the. Muscles and connective tissues that pull on the bones) to overcome an external load.
True or false: Internal tension within the muscles is what leads to force production, no matter the external force demands from the neuromuscular system to produce stability, endurance, maximal strength or power.
Describe Strength Adaptations.
The result from the degree of internal tension produced.
True or False: Muscles operate under the control of the CNS.
True or False: Strength needs to be thought of not as a FUNCTION of muscle, but as a RESULT of activating the Neuromusclar system.
Which type of muscles is Strength designed to match the characteristics with? (What muscles are being targeted during strength training)
Type II muscle fibers - fast twitch, quick-contracting, high tension output, prone to fatigue.
Majority of Strength increases will occur during the first __ weeks of resistance training from increase ______ ______ an muscle hypertrophy.
- 12 weeks
- Neural Recruitment
Ability of the neuromuscular system to produce the greatest force in the shortest time.
What is the equation for Power?
Force multiplied by velocity
(Force x Velocity) = Power
Force = weight
Velocity = speed at which weight is moved
What is the focus of Power Resistance Training Programs?
Getting the neuromuscular system to generate force as quickly as possible (rate of force production)
How does the Superset Strategy assist with Power?
Can create the necessary adaptations to enhance the body's ability to recruit a large number of motor units and increase the rate (speed) of activation.
How can one maximize training for Power Adaptations?
Both heavy and light loads must be moved as fast as possible (in a controlled fashion).
What are Power Adapations?
Build on stabilization and strength Adapations and then apply them at more realistic speeds and forces seen in everyday life and sporting activities.
Describe a Single-Set Resistance Training System.
1. 1 set per exercise
2. Recommended to be performed two at a time per week to promote sufficient development and maintenance of muscle mass
3. Beneficial for beginning level clients to allow for proper adaptive responses of connective tissues and nervousness system before engaging in more rigorous training systems
Describe a Multiple-Set Resistance Training System.
1. Multiple numbers of sets for each exercise
2. The Resistance (load), sets, and repetitions performed are selected according to the goals and needs of the client
3. Appropriate for both novice and advanced clients (superior to single-set for more advanced clients)
4. The increase volume (sets, reps, and intensity) is necessary for further improvement but must be administered appropriately to avoid overtraining.
Describe the Pyramid (Resistance Training) System.
1. Involves a progressive or regressive step approach that either increase weight with each set or decreases weight with each set.
2. Light-To-Heavy System: individual typically performs 10-12 reps with a light load and increases the resistance for each of the following sets until the individual can perform only 1-2 reps, usually in about 4-6 sets (Heavy-To-Light is performed opposite)
Describe the two types of Superset Systems.
1. Individuals perform two exercises for the same muscle group back to back
2. Individuals perform two exercises back to back that involves antagonist muscle groups
Describe the Superset System where two exercises are performed back to back that involve antagonist muscle groups. Give an Example.
- Allows significant load to be placed on the target muscle during each set (while agonist is working, the antagonist is recovering and vice versa)
- Typically involves sets of 8-12 reps with no rest between sets or exercises
- Example: Chest and Back or Quadriceps and Hamstring Complex
Describe the Superset System where individuals perform two exercises for the same muscle group back to back. Give an Example.
- Will improve muscular endurance and hypertrophy because the volume of work performed is relatively high
- Can use 2, 3 (tri-set) or more exercises (giant set) for the target muscle group
- Example: Bench Press immediately followed by push-ups to fatigue the chest musculature
What are Drop-Sets?
- Technique that allows a client to continue a set past the point at which it would usually terminate.
- Performing a set to failure, them removing a small percentage of the load (5-20%) and continue with the set, completing a small number of reps (usually 2-4)
- Repeated several times (usually 2-3 drops per set)
What is a Triple-Drop Set?
A set to failure followed by three successive load decrement a performed with not rest
What is the Circuit-Training System?
Consists of a series of exercises that an individual performs one after another, with minimal rest between each exercise.
What are the typical acute variables within the Circuit-Training System?
1. Low-to-Moderate Number of Sets (1-3)
2. Moderate-to-High Reps (8-20)
3. Short Rest Periods (15-60s) between exercises
4. Variable can be manipulated to enhance the desired effect
Give an example of a Circuit-Training Program.
1. Ball Two-Arm Dumbbell Chest Press -->
2. Single-Leg Cable Row -->
3. Ball Combo I -->
4. Single-eg Dumbbell Curl -->
5. Supine Ball Dumbbell Tricep Extension-->
6. Set-Up to Balance -->
What is the Peripheral Heart Action System? What is the benefit of this variation?
- A variation of Circuit-Training that alternates upper body and lower body exercises through the circuit.
- Distributes blood flow between upper and lower extremities potentially improving circulation
Give an example of Set 1 (Stabilization) for a Peripheral Heart Action System sample workout.
1. Ball Dumbbell Chest Press
2. Ball Squat
3. Single-Leg Cable Row
4. Step-Up to Balance
5. Single-Leg Dumbbell to Shoulder Press
Give an example of Set 2 (Strength) for a Peripheral Heart Action System sample workout.
1. Bench Press
2. Barbell Squat
3. Seated Row
4. Romanian Deadlift
5. Seated Dumbbell Shoulder Press
Give an example of Set 3 (Power) for a Peripheral Heart Action System sample workout.
1. Medicine Ball Chest Press
2. Squat Jump
3. Soccer Throw
4. Power Step-Up
5. Front Medicine Ball Oblique Throw
What is a Split-Routine System? Who is this predominantly used for?
- Breaking the body up into parts to be trained on separate days.
- Many body-builders and mass-dominant and strength athletes (football, shot put, etc)
What is KEY in a Split-Routine System? Why?
- RECOVERY TIME!!!
- When training each body part more than once/week, volume and intensity should be accounted for
Give an example of a 2-Day Split-Routine.
MON - Chest, Shoulders, Triceps
THURS - Back, Biceps, Legs
Give an example of a 3-Day Split-Routine.
MON - Chest, Shoulders, Triceps
WED - Legs
FRI - Back, Biceps
Give an example of a 4-Day Split-Routine.
MON & THURS - Chest Shoulder, Triceps
TUES & FRI - Back, Biceps, Legs
Give an example of a 5-Day Split-Routine.
MON - Chest
TUES - Legs
WED - Back
THURS - Shoulders
FRI - Arms
Give an example of a 6-Day Split-Routine.
MON & FRI - Chest, Shoulders, Triceps
TUES & SAT - Legs
WED & SUN - Back, Biceps
What is Vertical Loading?
Alternating body parts training from set to set, starting from the upper extremities and moving to the lower extremities
What is a main benefit of Vertical Loading?
Beneficial for allowing maximal recovery to each body pat while minimizing the amount of time wasted on rest
- Example: if it takes 1 min to perform each exercise, by the time the client returns to the chest exercise, 7-10 mins could have passed, which should be sufficient time to allow for full adenosine triphosphate (ATP) / phosphocreatine (PC) recovery
Give an example of a Vertical Loading Progression.
1. Total Body -->
2. Chest -->
3. Back -->
4. Shoulders -->
5. Triceps -->
What is Horizontal Loading?
Performing all sets of an exercise or body part before moving onto the next exercise or body part.
Which phases of the OPT Model is Horizontal Loading most beneficial for?
Maximal Strength (Phase 4) and Power Training (Phase 5)
(When longer rest periods are required between sets)