Chapter 3 - The Cardiorespiratory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 - The Cardiorespiratory System Deck (41):
1

Cardiorespiratory System

A system of the body composed of two closely related systems that work together to provide the body with adequate oxygen and nutrients and to remove waste products such as CO2 from cells in the body.
-the cardiovascular system consisting of the heart, blood vessels, and blood
and
-the respiratory system consisting of trachea, bronchi, alveoli, and the lungs

2

Cardiovascular System

A system of the body composed of the heart, blood, and blood vessels that transport the blood from the heart to the tissues of the body.

3

Heart

A hollow muscular organ that pumps a circulation of blood through the body by means of rhythmic contraction.

4

Compare and Contrast Cardiac muscles (and fibers) to Skeletal Muscles (and fibers).

Both contain myofibrils and sarcomeres aligned side by side (gives striated appearance)
-Cardiac Muscle: Involuntary, muscle fibers are shorter than Skeletal Muscles, has irregularly spaced dark bands between cardiac cells called intercalated discs, built-in conduction system that sends electrical signal rapidly throughout all cardiac cells.
-Skeletal Muscle: Voluntary, muscle fibers are longer than Cardiac

4

What are Intercalated Discs, where are they located, what is their function?

-dark bands between cardiac muscle cells
-help hold muscle cells together during contraction and create an electrical connection between the cells that allows the heart to contract as one functional unit.

5

Mediastinum

The space in the chest between the lungs that contains all the internal organ of the chest except the lungs.

6

Sinoatrial (SA) Node

A specialized area of cardiac tissue, located in the right atrium of the heart, which initiates the electrical impulses that determine the heart rate; often termed the pacemaker for the heart.

7

Atrioventricular (AV) Node

A small mass of specialized cardiac muscle fibers, located in the wall of the right atrium of the heart, that receives heartbeat impulses from the sinoatrial node and directs them to the walls of the ventricles.

8

What is the Atrium, where is it located, what it its function?
Describe Right vs. Left functions.

-Smaller chambers, located in the superior (on top) chamber on either side of the heart that acts like a reservoir by receiving blood from the veins and forcing it into the ventricles.
-Right Atrium: gathers deoxygenated blood returning to the heart from the entire body
-Left Atrium: gathers oxygenated blood coming to the heart from the lungs.

9

What are Ventricles, where are they located, what is its function? Describe Right vs. Left functions.

Larger chambers located inferiorly (on bottom) on either side of the heart that receives blood from its corresponding atrium and, in turn, forces blood into the arteries.
-Right Ventricle: thin walls and pumps under low pressure b/c it only has to pump a short distance (to the lungs). Receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium, then pumps it to the lungs to be saturated with incoming oxygen.
-Left Ventricle: Thicker walls and pumps under high pressure b/c it pumps blood out to the rest of the body. Receives oxygenated blood from the left atrium and proceeds to pump it to the entire body.

10

What are the two pumps in the heart separated by?

1. Interatrial Septum (separates the atria)
2. Interventricular Septum (separates the ventricles)

11

Which side of the heart is the Pulmonic side? Why?

-The right side.
-It receives blood from the body that is low in O2, and high in CO2 (deoxygenated) and pumps it to the lungs and then back to the left atria.

12

Which side of the heart is the Systemic side? Why?

-The left side.
-It pumps blood high in O2 and low in CO2 (oxygenated) to the rest of the body.

13

What are the two types of valves called that prevent backflow or spillage of blood back into the heart chambers.

1. Atrioventricular Valves (tricuspid and mitral valves)
2. Semilunar Valves (pulmonary and aortic valves)

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Stroke Volume

The amount of blood pumped out of the heart with each contraction.

15

What does End-Diastolic Volume (EDV) mean?

Is the filled volume of the ventricle before contraction.
-Approx. about 120mL of blood.

16

What does End-Systolic Volume (ESV) mean?

the residual volume of blood remaining in the ventricle after ejection.
-Approx. about 50mL of blood.

17

How do you find the Stroke Volume (SV)?

The difference between EDV and ESV.
Example:
EDV = 120mL, ESV = 50mL
120-50=70
SV = 70mL

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Heart Rate (HR)

The rate at which the heart pumps.

19

Cardiac Output

-the overall performance of the heart. The volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute (mL blood/min).
Formula: Heart Rate (HR) x Stroke Volume (SV)
Example: 70bmp (HR) x 70mL/beat (stroke volume) = 4,900mL/min (4.9L/min)

20

What is the definition of Blood?

Fluid the circulates in the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins, that carries nutrients and oxygen to all parts of the body, regulates body temperature, fights infections, and removes waste products.

21

What are the three types of cells in blood and what are their functions?

1. Red Blood Cells: carry O2 from the lungs throughout the body
2. White Blood Cells: help fight infection
3. Platelets: help with clotting

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Blood Vessels

Network of hollow tubes that circulates blood throughout the body.

23

What is Plasma? How much of it makes up the total volume of blood?

-Aqueous, liquid-like component of blood.
-55%

24

What are the three main types of blood vessels?

1. Arteries
2. Capillaries
3. Veins

25

What is the main function of an Artery? List the largest artery in the body, as well as the branches that lead out from the largest artery.

Vessels that transport blood away from the heart.
-Largest artery in body is the Aorta (carries blood away from the heart)
-Branches (medium-sized): carotid artery, subclavian artery, mesenteric arteries, renal artery, and the iliac artery.

26

Capillaries

-The smallest blood vessels
-The site of exchange of chemicals (O2, Nutrients, Hormones, and waste products) and water between the blood and the tissues.
-Connects venules with arterioles.

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Veins

Vessels that transport blood from the capillaries toward the heart.

28

Arterioles

Small terminal branches of an artery, which end in capillaries.

29

Venules

-Vessels (or very small veins) that collect blood from the capillaries and connect capillaries to larger veins.
-Progressively merge with other venules to form veins.

30

Respiratory System (Pulmonary System)

A system of organs (the lungs and respiratory passageways) that collects oxygen from the external environment and transports it to the bloodstream.

31

Respiratory Pump

Is composed of skeletal structures (bones) and soft tissues (muscles) that work together to allow proper respiratory mechanics to occur and help pump blood back to the heart during inspiration.

32

What are the two phases of breathing (ventilation)?

1. Inspiration (or inhalation)
2. Expiration (or exhalation)

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Inspiration

The process of actively contracting the inspiratory muscles to move air into the body (inhalation).

34

Expiration

The process of actively or passively relaxing the inspiratory muscles to move air out of the body (exhalation).

35

Describe the difference between "Normal, resting-state" breathing and "heavy, deep, forced" breathing.

-Normal Resting State Breathing: quiet, use of primary respiratory muscles (diaphragm, external intercostals)
-Heavy Deep Forced Breathing: requires additional use of the secondary respiratory muscles (scalenes, pectoralis minor)

36

Describe Conducting Airways and the body parts associated.

-Consist of all structures that air travels through before entering the respiratory airways. Allows incoming air to be purified, humidified (or moisture added) and warmed or cooled to match body temperature.
-Nasal Cavity, Oral Cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Right and Left Pulmonary Bronchi, Bronchioles

37

Describe Respiratory Airways and the body parts associated.

-collects the channeled air coming from the Conducting Airway
-Alveoli, Alveolar Sacs (located at the end of bronchioles)

38

Diffusion

The process of getting oxygen from the environment to the tissues in the body. "Gases such as oxygen or carbon dioxide are transported in and out of the bloodstream through a process known as diffusion."

39

The Equation of Oxygen Consumption (Fick Equation)

VO2 = (Q) x (a-VO2)

VO2: oxygen consumption
Q: Cardiac Output (HR x SV)
a-VO2: Arterial-Venous Difference (difference in O2 content between the blood in the arteries and the blood in the veins)

40

Maximal Oxygen Consumption (V02max)

-The highest rate of oxygen transport and utilization achieved at maximal physical exertion.
-Only way to determine is to directly measure ventilation, oxygen consumption, and carbon dioxide production during maximal exercise test.
-V02max values can range anywhere from 40 to 80mL * kg-1 * min-1, or approximately 11 to 23 METs.