Flashcards in Chapter 7 - Flexibility Training Concepts Deck (40):
What is flexibility?
The normal extensibility of all soft tissues that allows the full range of motion of a joint.
What is extensibility?
Capability to be elongated or stretched.
What is Range of Motion (ROM) of a joint dictated by?
The normal extensibility of all soft tissues surrounding it
True or False:
Soft tissue will only achieve efficient extensibility if optimal control of movement is maintained through the entire ROM.
List (11) factors that can influence flexibility.
2. Connective Tissues Elasticity
3. Composition of tendons or skin surrounding the joint
4. Joint Structure
5. Strength of opposing muscle groups
6. Body composition
9. Activity Level
10. Previous injuries or existing medical conditions
11. Repetitive Movements (pattern overload)
What is Neuromuscular Efficiency?
The ability of the nervous system to recruit the correct muscles (agonists, antagonists, synergists, and stabilizers) to produce force (concentrically), reduce force (eccentrically), and dynamically stabilize (isometrically) the body's structure in all three planes of motion.
What is Dynamic Range of Motion?
The combination of flexibility and the nervous system's ability to control this range of motion efficiently.
In a cable pull down exercise, the latissimus dorsi is the ________(1) and concentrically accelerates shoulder extension adduction and internal rotation while the mid and lower trapezius and rhomboids are the __________(2) muscle that performs the downward rotation of the scapulae. The rotator cuff musculature is the _______(3) and must dynamically _______(4) the glenohumeral (shoulder) joint throughout the motion.
What is a force-couple?
Muscle groups moving together to produce movement around a joint.
What are postural distortion patterns?
Predictable patterns of muscle imbalances (poor static and dynamic posture).
What is relative flexibility?
The tendency of the body to seek the path of least resistance during functional movement patterns (altered movement patterns).
What is a muscle imbalance?
Alteration of muscle length surrounding a joint.
List some causes for muscle imbalances/
1. Postural Stress
2. Emotional Duress
3. Repetitive Movement
4. Cumulative Trauma
5. Poor Training Technique
6. Lack of Core Strength
7. Lack of Neuromuscular Efficiency
What is Reciprocal Inhibition?
The simultaneous contraction of one muscle and the relaxation of its antagonist to allow movement to take place.
What is Altered Reciprocal Inhibition?
The concept of muscle inhibition, caused by a tight agonist, which inhibits its functional antagonist.
What is synergistic dominance?
The neuromuscular phenomenon that occurs when the inappropriate muscles take over the function of a weak or inhibited prime mover.
What is arthrokinematics?
The motions of joints in the body.
What is arthrokinetic dysfunction?
Altered forces at the joint that result in abnormal muscular activity and impaired neuromuscular communication at the joint.
What are muscle spindles?
-Receptors sensitive to change in length of the muscle and the rate of that change.
-The major sensory organ of the muscle and are composed of microscopic fibers that lie parallel to the muscle fiber.
What is the function of muscle spindles?
To help prevent muscles from stretching too far or too fast.
What happens when a muscle on one side of the joint is lengthened (because of a shortened muscle on the opposite side)?
The spindles of the lengthened muscle are stretched.
What is autogenic inhibition? How would you describe this in layman's terms? What is one way of achieve autogenic inhibition?
-The process by which neural impulses that sense tension are greater than the impulses that cause a muscle to contract, providing an inhibitory effect to the muscle spindles.
-"Turning Off the Muscle"
- Static Stretching
What are Golgi Tendon Organs? Where are they located?
-Receptors sensitive to change in tension of the muscle and the rate of that change.
-Located within the musculotendinous junction (the point where muscle and tendon meet)
What happens with Golgi Tendon Organs are excited?
causes the muscle to relax, which prevents the muscle from being placed under excessive stress, which could result in injury.
What is a pattern overload?
Consistently repeating the same pattern of motion, which may place abnormal stresses on the body.
List some reasons Flexibility Training is good for.
1. Correcting Muscle imbalances
2. Increasing joint range of motion
3. Decreasing the excessive tension of muscles
4. Relieving joint stress
5. Improving the extensibility of the musculotendinous junction
6. Maintaining the normal functional length of all muscles
7. Improving neuromuscular efficiency
8. Improving function
What is Davis's Law?
States that soft tissue models along the lines of stress.
What is the process of Cumulative Injury Cycle? List the "vicious circle."
Cumulative Injury Cycle ---> Tissue Trama ---> Inflammation ---> Muscle Spasm ---> Adhesions ---> Altered Neuromuscular Control ---> Muscle Imbalance ---> Cumulative Injury
What is Static Stretching?
The process of passively taking a muscle to the point of tension and holding the stretch for a minimum of 30 seconds.
What is DYNAMIC Stretching?
The active extensions of a muscle, using force production and momentum, to move the joint through the full available range of motion.
What is ACTIVE-ISOLATED Stretching?
The process of using agonists and synergists to dynamically move the joint into a range of motion.
What is the Mechanism of Action during a STATIC stretch?
Autogenic Inhibition or Reciprocal Inhibition (depending on how the stretch is performed)
What are the acute variables for STATIC stretching?
1 - 3 sets
Hold each stretch for 30 seconds
What is the Mechanism of Action during an ACTIVE-ISOLATED stretch?
What is the Mechanism of Action during a DYNAMIC stretch?
What are the acute variables for ACTIVE-ISOLATED stretching?
1 - 2 sets
Hold each stretch for 1 - 2 seconds for 5-10 repetitions
What are the acute variables for DYNAMIC stretching?
1 - 2 sets
10 - 15 repetitions
3 - 10 exercises
Give at least 3 examples of STATIC stretches.
1. Gastrocnemius Stretch
2. Kneeling Hip Flexor Stretch
3. Standing Adductor Stretch
4. Pectoral Wall Stretch
Give at least 3 examples of ACTIVE-ISOLATED stretches.
1. Active Supine Biceps Femoris Stretch
2. Active Kneeling Quadriceps Stretch
3. Active Standing Adductor Stretch
4. Active Pectoral Wall Stretch