Flashcards in Chapter 19: Cholesterol and Lipoprotein Synthesis Deck (21)
MOA of the "statins?" What is the result of administering?
Inhibit HMG-coA reductase (RL step in cholesterol synthesis)
Decrease in LDL, increase HDL, decrease triglycerides
What is the least potent statin?
What are the two most potent statins?
Atorvastatin & rosuvastatin
How does inhibiting cholesterol synthesis decrease LDL?
A decrease in cholesterol causes up regulation of LDL receptors (SREBP2) so they express more --> more uptake of cholesterol from the plasma
MOA of cholestyramine?
Inhibits bile acid absorption - this prevents enterohepatic circulation of the bile acids --> causes more bile salts to be made --> cholesterol is then excreted more
What are the first and second line treatments for lowering LDL? What are the effects (respectively) on triglycerides?
Bile acid absorption inhibitors (Cholestyramine, colesevelam, colestipol)
Stains decrease tryglycerides, but bile acid abs inhibitors INCREASE levels!
Decreases cholesterol transport form micelles into the enterocyte by inhibiting uptake through brush border protein NPC1L1
Modest LDL reduction
What should you use with ezetimibe? Why?
Use a statin to prevent compensatory cholesterol synthesis
What drugs increase ezetimibe levels?
cyclosporine & fibrates
Do not use ezetimibe in pts with ____??
active liver disease
persistently elevated liver fxn test (even when given w a statin)
How do fibrates work?
Agonists of PPAR alpha --> this will increase lipoprotein lipase --> increase FA uptake into cells and decrease plasma TGs
What are the fibrate drugs?
Drug of choice for hypertriglyeridemia?
When combining a fibrate with a statin, what is there an increased risk of?
Fibrates _____ warfarin levels?
Decreases hormone sensitive lipase in order to decrease FFAs going to the liver for TG synthesis
Niacin is the drug of choice for what?
Tx for low HDL
What is a side effect of niacin that occurs within the first few weeks of use? How can this be prevented?
Pretreat with aspirin
Niacin does what to insulin sensitivity?
What omega-3-fatty-acids are used to tx hypertriglyceridemia?