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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (144)
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1

IN the intrinsic pathway, what neutralization of which factor allows for apoptosis

IAPs

2

Which tissue almost always undergoes liquefactive necrosis

CNS during hypoxic events

3

Which pathway is the major pathway of all mammalian cells

Intrinsic mitochondrial pathway

4

What are the conditions that commonly cause metaplstic calcification

1) Increased PTH
2) Resorption of bone tissue
3) Vitamin D related disorders
4) Renal failure

5

How does increased calcium levels in the cause death

Opening of transition pore, activates phospholipase (breaks membranes), proteases, endonucleases (DNA damage) and ATPases, and caspases

6

How do Striated and cardiac muscle respond to increased metabolic demands

Hypertrophy

7

FASL is expressed on which cells

T cells that recognize self antigens

8

What is lipofuscin and what is it derived from

Aka lipochrome, which is an insoluble pigment and is derived through lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated lipids

9

How does mercuric chloride poisoning cause damage

Mercer’s binds to sulfhydryl of cell membranes. Leads to increase in permeability

10

What are four conditions associated with autophagy defects

1) Cancer
2) Neurodegenerative disorders
3) Infectious diseases
4) IBD

11

What is marasmus

Prolonged protein-calorie malnutrition leading to muscle wasting for energy

12

What is the result of the defective protein in familial hypercholesterolemia

Hypercholesterolemia

13

What are the 2 proapoptotic proteins

BAK and BAX

14

What is the condition of metastatic calcification

Deposition of calcium salts in healthy tissue

15

How does muscle accomplish hypertrophy

Increase in protein synthesis, along with increase in number of myofilaments. This increases the contraction strength of muscle

16

What is the fate of cells that are hormone sensitive and do not receive their relevant hormone

Undergo apoptosis via intrinsic pathway (lack of BCL2/BCL-XL and increase in BIM)

17

How do the myosin heavy chain isotypes different in hypertrophy muscles

In muscle hypertrophy, alpha is replaced with beta (slower and more efficient contraction)

18

What is the process of activation for the FAS death receptors

1) FASL binds to the FAS receptor
2) FADD is grouped together and activated caspase 8
3) Caspase 8 activated the executioner proteins

19

What is the defective protein in Alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency

Alpha 1 antitrypsin

20

What is the protein disorder in familial hypercholesterolemia

LDL receptor

21

What is the effect of rapamycin

Blocks the mTOR pathway, which increases longevity of life due to decreased cell cycle progression.

22

What is dystrophic calcification

Deposition of calcium salts and other minerals into necrotic tissue and debris that is not destroyed

23

What is the defective protein in tay-Sachs

Hexosaminidase Beta subunit

24

What level of ATP depletion will result in widespread effects

5-10%

25

What is karyorrhexis

Nucleus will undergo fragmentation

26

What is the affect of vitamin A deficiency in the respiratory epithelium

Induces squamous metaplasia

27

In Alzheimer disease, what is the relation to autophagy

Accelerated autophagy, with any defects in autophagy accelerating the disease

28

Death receptor is part of which family of receptors

TNF family

29

What is the mechanism of deactivation for hydroxyl ion

Conversion to water by glutathione peroxidase

30

What are cholesterolosis

Accumulation of cholesterol filled macrophages in the gallbladder