Chapter 6- HIV, AIDS, Amyladosis Flashcards Preview

Robbins Pathology MOD1 (Chptr 1-6) > Chapter 6- HIV, AIDS, Amyladosis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 6- HIV, AIDS, Amyladosis Deck (139)
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1

Candidiasis most commonly presents in AIDs patients as what symptoms

Infection of the oral cavity, vagina, and esophagus

2

What are the factors of HIV that lead to B cell proliferation

-latent EBV or CMV reactivation
-gp41 activated B cells
-HIV macros produce IL-6

3

What is the steps in HIV infecting cells

1) gp120 binds to CD4
2) gp120, CD4 bind to CCR5
3) gp41 penetrates the membrane

4

Familial Mediterranean fever is clinically presented by

Fever and inflammation of serosal surfaces (peritoneum, pleura, synovial membrane)

5

Why is the T tropic X4 HIV referred to as syncytia inducing (SI) virus

Because it is the form of HIV that can cause the fusion of the infected cells with the non infected

6

How long after infection will the patient seroconversion

3 to 7 weeks

7

What are the two major targets of the HIV

Immune cells and CNS

8

X4 HIV prefer to infect which cells

T-tropic, so T cells

9

Which protein is associated with secondary amyloidosis and what is the mechanism

AA
-Due to the increased production of SAA protein in response to increased acute inflammation state. So any chronic inflammation can cause this

10

What is the mechanism of action for AL proteins

quirked mutation that results in the increased production of Plasma cell light chains, which have limited proteolysis and begin to aggregation

11

What rate do AIDs patients develop lymphomas compared to the general healthy population

10 fold greater

12

What is the good clinical marker to monitor the severity of the HIV disease

HIV-1 RNA levels

13

What is the telltale sign of moving from HIV to AIDS

The presence of invasive candiadiasis, as normally this will not occur

14

What are Bence-Jones proteins and when are they commonly seen

Free/unpaired kappa or lambda light chains that can be seen in the urine. This occurs during primary amyloidosis

15

Which HIV subgroup is the fastest growing

C

16

What does Cryptosporidium and Isosporidiosis present as in patients with AIDS

Enteritis, leading to diarrhea

17

What percentage of HIV patients develop pneumonia

15-30%

18

What are the typical genes of retroviruses

Gag, pol,env

19

Acute HIV infection is assocaited with which type of cell

Memory T cell expressing CCR5 in mucosal

20

Which HIV subgroup is most common in Thailand

E

21

How is the AB protein formed

Proteolysis from the larger transmembrane glycoprotein known as amyloid precursor protein

22

Which HIV strain is dominant early in the infection

R5 (M tropic) accounts for 90% in the early stages, then moves to T tropic

23

Which protein is associated with familial amyloid polyneuropathies

Transthyretin aka TTR

24

What is primary amyloidosis

Systemic or generalized amyloidosis when associated with plasma cell disorder

25

What is the pathogen causing atypical mycobacteria

Mycobacterium avium-intracellular

26

How does having concurrent STIs lead to increased spread of HIV

More immune cells present in the semen, skin lesions or abscesses make transmission easier

27

Which enzyme is likely involved in B cells that can lead to lymphomas

AID, where the imperfections lead to lymphomas

28

What is the protein that allow protection from HIV in naive T cells

APOBEC3G

29

What are the predominant cells in the brain that are the target for HIV

Macrophages and microglia

30

What does toxoplasma Gondii present as clinically

Invader of CNS, causing encephalitis