Chapter 2: Brain and Language Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2: Brain and Language Deck (15)
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1

aphasia

Language loss or disorder following brain damage.

2

cortex

The approximately ten billion neurons that form the outside surface of the brain; also referred to as gray matter.

3

corpus callosum

The nerve fibers connecting the right and left cerebral hemispheres.

4

contralateral

Refers to neural signals that travel between one side of the body (left/right) and the opposite cerebral hemisphere (right/left).

5

Broca's area

A front part of the left hemisphere of the brain, damage to which causes agrammatism or Broca’s aphasia. Also called Broca’s region.

6

Wernicke's area

The back (posterior) part of the left brain that if damaged causes a specific type of aphasia. Also called Wernicke’s region.

7

Broca's aphasia

Language disorder usually resulting from damage to Broca’s region in which the patient has difficulty with certain aspects of syntax, especially functional categories. See Broca’s area.

8

Wernicke's aphasia

The type of aphasia resulting from damage to Wernicke’s area.

9

nonsense words

A permissible phonological form without meaning, e.g., slithy.

10

specific language impairment (SLI)

Difficulty in acquiring language faced by certain
children with no other cognitive deficits.

11

critical-age hypothesis

The theory that states that there is a window of time between early childhood and puberty for learning a first language, and beyond which first language acquisition is almost always incomplete.

12

critical period

The time between early childhood and puberty during which a child can acquire a native language easily, swiftly, and without external intervention. After this period, the acquisition of the grammar is difficult and, for some individuals, never fully achieved.

13

lateralization

Terms used to refer to cognitive functions localized to one or the other hemisphere of the brain.

14

neurolinguistics

The branch of linguistics concerned with the brain mechanisms that underlie the acquisition and use of human language; the study of the neurobiology of language.

15

modular

ex: language is independent of other cognitive systems
with which it interacts