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Flashcards in Phonology Deck (32)
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1

phonology

The sound system of a language; the component of a grammar that includes the inventory of sounds (phonetic and phonemic units) and rules for their combination and pronunciation; the study of the sound systems of all languages.

2

minimal pairs

Two (or more) words that are identical except for one phoneme that occurs in the same position in each word, e.g., pain /pen/, bane /ben/, main /men/.

3

morphophonemic rules

Rules that specify the pronunciation of morphemes; a morpheme may have more than one pronunciation determined by such rules, e.g., the plural morpheme /z/ in English is regularly pronounced [s], [z], or [әz].

4

homorganic nasal rule

A phonological assimilation rule that changes the place of articulation feature of a nasal consonant to agree with that of a following consonant, e.g., /n/ becomes [m] when preceding /p/ as in impossible.

5

phoneme

A contrastive phonological segment whose phonetic realizations are predictable by rule.

6

allophone

A predictable phonetic realization of a phoneme, e.g., [p] and [pʰ] are allophones of the phoneme /p/ in English.

7

phone

A phonetic realization of a phoneme.

8

complementary distribution

The situation in which phones never occur in the same phonetic environment, e.g., [p] and [pʰ] in English. See allophone.

9

distinctive feature

Phonetic properties of phonemes that account for their ability to contrast meanings of words, e.g., voice, tense. Also called phonemic features.

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phonemic feature

Phonetic properties of phonemes that account for their ability to contrast meanings of words, e.g., voice, tense. Also called distinctive features.

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nondistinctive feature

Phonetic features of phones that are predictable by rule, e.g., aspiration in English.

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redundant

Describes a nondistinctive, nonphonemic feature that is predictable from other feature values of the segment, e.g., [+voice] is redundant for any [+nasal] phoneme in English because all nasals are voiced.

13

predictable feature

A nondistinctive, noncontrastive, redundant phonetic feature, e.g., aspiration in English voiceless stops, or nasalization in English vowels.

14

nonredundant

A phonetic feature that is distinctive, e.g., stop, voice, but not aspiration in English.

15

lexical gaps

Possible but non-occurring words; forms that obey the phonotactic constraints of a language yet have no meaning, e.g., blick in English.

16

phonemes

A contrastive phonological segment whose phonetic realizations are predictable by rule.

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phonetic features

Phonetic properties of segments (e.g., voice, nasal, alveolar) that distinguish one segment from another.

18

prosodic feature

The duration (length), pitch, or loudness of speech sounds.

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suprasegmental

Prosodic features, e.g., length, tone.

20

tone languages

A language in which the tone or pitch on a syllable is phonemic, so that words with identical segments but different tones are different words, e.g., Mandarin Chinese, Thai.

21

Intonation

The pitch contour of a phrase or sentence.

22

assimilation rules

A phonological process that changes feature values of
segments to make them more similar, e.g., a vowel becomes [+nasal] when followed by [+nasal] consonant. Also called feature-spreading rules.

23

dissimilation rules

Phonological rules that change feature values of segments to make them less similar, e.g., a fricative dissimilation rule: /θ/ is pronounced [t] following another fricative. In English dialects with this rule, sixth /sɪks 1 θ/ is pronounced [sɪkst].

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nondistinctive features

Phonetic features of phones that are predictable by rule, e.g., aspiration in English.

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epenthetic

The insertion of one or more phones in a word, e.g., the insertion of [ə] in children to produce [tʃɪlәdrə̃n] instead of [tʃɪldrə̃n].

26

metathesis

The phonological process that reorders segments, often by transposing two sequential sounds, e.g., the pronunciation of ask /æsk/ in some English dialects as [æks].

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natural classes

A class of sounds characterized by a phonetic property or feature that pertains to all members of the set, e.g., the class of stops. A natural class may be defined with a smaller feature set than that of any individual member of the class.

28

phonotactics

Rules stating permissible strings of phonemes;
within a syllable, e.g., a word-initial nasal consonant may be followed only by a vowel (in English). See possible word, nonsense word, accidental gap.

29

accidental gaps

Phonological or morphological form that constitutes possible but non-occurring lexical items, e.g., blick, unsad

30

nonsense words

A permissible phonological form without meaning, e.g., slithy.