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Linguistics > Morphology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Morphology Deck (23)
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1

morphemes

Smallest unit of linguistic meaning or function, e.g., sheepdogs contains three morphemes, sheep, dog, and the function morpheme for plural, s.

2

form

The phonological or gestural representation of a morpheme or word.

3

meaning

The conceptual or semantic aspect of a sign or utterance that permits us to comprehend the message being conveyed. Expressions in language generally have both form—pronunciation or gesture—and meaning. See extension, intension, sense, reference.

4

arbitrary

Describes the property of language, including sign language, whereby there is no natural or intrinsic relationship between the way a word is pronounced (or signed) and its meaning.

5

linguistic sign

Sounds or gestures, typically morphemes in spoken languages and signs in sign languages, that have a form bound to a meaning in a single unit, e.g., dog is a linguistic sign whose form is its pronunciation [dag] and whose meaning is Canis familiaris (or however we define “dog”).

6

free morphemes

A single morpheme that constitutes a word, e.g., dog.

7

open class / content words

The class of lexical content words; a category of words that commonly adds new words, e.g., nouns, verbs.

8

closed class / function words

A category, generally a functional category, that rarely has new words added to it, e.g., prepositions, conjunctions. See open class.

9

bound morphemes

A morpheme that must be attached to other morphemes, e.g., -ly, -ed,
non-. Bound morphemes are prefixes, suffixes, infixes, circumfixes, and some roots such as cran in cranberry. See free morpheme.

10

affixes

A bound morpheme attached to a stem or root. See prefix, suffix, infix, circumfix, stem, root.

11

prefixes

An affix that is attached to the beginning of a morpheme or stem, e.g., in- in inoperable.

12

suffixes

An affix that is attached to the end of a morpheme or stem, e.g., -er in Lew is taller than Bill.

13

circumfixes

A bound morpheme, parts of which occur in a word both before and after the root, e.g., ge—t in German geliebt, “loved,” from the root lieb.

14

infixes

A bound morpheme that is inserted in the middle of another morpheme, e.g., Tagalog sulat “writing” but sumulat “to write” after insertion of the infix um.

15

derivational affixes / morpheme

A morpheme added to a stem or root to form a new stem or word, possibly, but not necessarily, resulting in a change in syntactic category, e.g., -er added to a verb like kick to give the noun kicker.

16

inflexional affixes / morpheme

A bound grammatical morpheme that is affixed to a word
according to rules of syntax, e.g., third-person singular verbal suffix -s.

17

root

The morpheme that remains when all affixes are stripped from a complex word, e.g., system from un + system + atic + ally.

18

stems

The base to which an affix is attached to create a more complex form that may be another stem or a word. See root, affix.

19

productive

Refers to morphological rules that can be used freely and apply to all forms to create new words, e.g., the addition to an adjective of -ish meaning “having somewhat of the quality,” such as newish, tallish, incredible-ish.

20

suppletive forms

A term used to refer to inflected morphemes in which the regular rules do not apply, e.g., went as the past tense of go.

21

compounds

A word composed of two or more words, which may be written as a single word or as words separated by spaces or hyphens, e.g., dogcatcher, dog biscuit, dog-tired.

22

head (of a compound)

The rightmost word, e.g., house in doghouse. It generally indicates the category and general meaning of the compound.

23

back-formations

Creation of a new word by removing an affix from an old word, e.g., donate from donation; or by removing what is mistakenly considered an affix, e.g., edit from editor.