Flashcards in Chapter 2- Chemical Basis Of Life Deck (104)
The personality of some atoms to be attracted to electrons and pull them close to them!!
EX: N2 and O2 !!!!!!
Uneven distribution of the charge in a molecule
✔️form between molecules or diff parts of a large molecule
✔️Bond formed by the charge attraction when HYDROGEN is COVALENTLY bonded to an ELECTRONEGATIVE atom and is attracted to another electronegative atom
✔️indicated by dotted line in structural formula
Why is DNA hard to unravel?
Bc it has ALOT of weak hydrogen bonds which are strong when together bc there are so many
How many hydrogen bonds can a water molecule form with neighboring water molecules?
What holds DNA together?
Weak hydrogen bonds
A charged atom or molecule
✔️Formed by the electrostatic attraction (positive--->neg.) after the complete transfer of an electron from a donor atom to an acceptor. (Acceptors attract electrons bc electronegative)
✔️strong bonds in crystals not in water (salt dissolves in water bc ionic bonds dissociate into ions
Making and breaking chemical bonds leading to changes in composition of matter; reactants---> products
Matter cannot be created nor destroyed
The relative concentration of reactants and products affects the reaction rate. The higher the concentration the ____________
....greater probability of a reaction
Completion in chemical reaction
All reactants are converted to products. (Majority are reversible)
The RATE of the forward reaction (speed/time) equals the RATE (speed/time) of the reverse reaction
Dynamic- reactions continuing in both directions.
Relative concentrations of reactants/products stay the same
Particles in a mixture are all spread out throughout; mixed together
Dissociation of water molecules
Occasionally, the hydrogen atom that is shared in a hydrogen bond between two water molecules, shifts from the oxygen atom to which its covalently bonded to the unshared orbitals of the oxygen atom to which its hydrogen bonded
What would happen if you took protein (slightly negative charge) and dumped it in acid?
The H+ ions (protons) will all pull the electrons toward them changing the shape of protein thus affecting its function
When does the #H+ = #OH-?
At equilibrium (pure water)
[H+] + [OH-] = ?
M= 10-7 M
Substances that increase the [H+] of a solution; also removed [OH-] bc it combines with H+ to form H2O
Either extremely acidic or extremely alkaline; will burn you
Substances that reduce the relative H+ of a solution; may alternately increase OH-
LEO the lion says GER stands for ?
Lose electrons= oxidation
Gain electrons= reduction
Anything that breaks down into a positive and a negative
Substance formed by the reaction between an acid and a base
1.0 * 10-14
In what pH range are most biological fluids?
6 to 8
Each pH unit represents a ________ difference (logarithmic scale)
Slight change in pH= large change in actual [H+]
Minimizing wide fluctuations in pH to help organisms maintain the Psh of body fluids within the narrow range necessary for life
Prevents sudden changes in pH
Ex: Bicarbonate (buffer in blood)
How do buffers work?
They either donate H+ to the solution when they have been depleted or accept H+ from the solution when they are i know excess
Large molecule consisting of many identical or similar subunits connected together
Ex: protein consists of many amino acids