Chapter 2- Chemical Basis Of Life Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2- Chemical Basis Of Life Deck (104)
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30

Electronegative atom

The personality of some atoms to be attracted to electrons and pull them close to them!!

EX: N2 and O2 !!!!!!

31

Dipole

Uneven distribution of the charge in a molecule

32

Hydrogen bond

✔️Weak bond
✔️form between molecules or diff parts of a large molecule
✔️Bond formed by the charge attraction when HYDROGEN is COVALENTLY bonded to an ELECTRONEGATIVE atom and is attracted to another electronegative atom
✔️indicated by dotted line in structural formula

33

Why is DNA hard to unravel?

Bc it has ALOT of weak hydrogen bonds which are strong when together bc there are so many

34

How many hydrogen bonds can a water molecule form with neighboring water molecules?

4

35

What holds DNA together?

Weak hydrogen bonds

adenine----> thymine
cytosine---> guanine

36

Ion

A charged atom or molecule

37

Ionic bond

✔️Formed by the electrostatic attraction (positive--->neg.) after the complete transfer of an electron from a donor atom to an acceptor. (Acceptors attract electrons bc electronegative)

✔️strong bonds in crystals not in water (salt dissolves in water bc ionic bonds dissociate into ions

38

Chemical reactions

Making and breaking chemical bonds leading to changes in composition of matter; reactants---> products

Matter cannot be created nor destroyed

39

The relative concentration of reactants and products affects the reaction rate. The higher the concentration the ____________

....greater probability of a reaction

40

Completion in chemical reaction

All reactants are converted to products. (Majority are reversible)

41

Chemical equilibrium

The RATE of the forward reaction (speed/time) equals the RATE (speed/time) of the reverse reaction

Dynamic- reactions continuing in both directions.

Relative concentrations of reactants/products stay the same

42

Homogenous

Particles in a mixture are all spread out throughout; mixed together

43

Dissociation of water molecules

Occasionally, the hydrogen atom that is shared in a hydrogen bond between two water molecules, shifts from the oxygen atom to which its covalently bonded to the unshared orbitals of the oxygen atom to which its hydrogen bonded

H2O-----> OH+H

44

What would happen if you took protein (slightly negative charge) and dumped it in acid?

The H+ ions (protons) will all pull the electrons toward them changing the shape of protein thus affecting its function

DENATURED ENZYME

45

When does the #H+ = #OH-?

At equilibrium (pure water)

46

Brackets indicate

Molar concentration

47

[H+] + [OH-] = ?

M?


1/10,000,000

M= 10-7 M

48

Acid

Substances that increase the [H+] of a solution; also removed [OH-] bc it combines with H+ to form H2O

49

Caustic

Either extremely acidic or extremely alkaline; will burn you

50

Base

Substances that reduce the relative H+ of a solution; may alternately increase OH-

51

LEO the lion says GER stands for ?

Lose electrons= oxidation
Gain electrons= reduction

Anything that breaks down into a positive and a negative

52

Salt

Substance formed by the reaction between an acid and a base

53

[H+][OH-]= ?

1.0 * 10-14

54

In what pH range are most biological fluids?

6 to 8

55

Each pH unit represents a ________ difference (logarithmic scale)

Tenfold

Slight change in pH= large change in actual [H+]

56

Buffers

Minimizing wide fluctuations in pH to help organisms maintain the Psh of body fluids within the narrow range necessary for life

Prevents sudden changes in pH

Ex: Bicarbonate (buffer in blood)

57

How do buffers work?

They either donate H+ to the solution when they have been depleted or accept H+ from the solution when they are i know excess

58

Polymer

Large molecule consisting of many identical or similar subunits connected together

Ex: protein consists of many amino acids

59

Monomer

Subunit or building block molecule of a polymer

Ex: amino acids are the monomers of the polymer protein