Flashcards in Chapter 2- Chemical Basis Of Life Deck (104)
Large organic (carbon-containing) polymer
What are the four classes of macromolecules in living organisms
Nucleic acid (DNA,RNA, and ATP)
Chemical reactions that link 2+ small molecules to form molecules with repeating structural units (making a polymer)
Mose polymerization reactions in living things !!!!
(Anabolism) Monomers are covalently linked, producing net removal of a water molecule for each covalent linkage
One monomer loses OH and another loses H
A reactions process that breaks (splits) covalent bonds between monomers by the addition of water molecules
Hydrogen fro water bonds with one monomer and remaining OH from water bonds with adjacent monomer
Ex: digestive enzymes catalyze hydrolysis reactions which BREAK APART large food molecules into monomers that can be absorbed into the bloodstream
Organic (must have carbons and hydrogen to be organic) molecules made of sugars and their polymers
Simple sugars that are monomers or building block molecules in CARBOHYDRATES
Major nutrients for cells ; glucose is most common
Where do carbs store energy
In their chemical bonds and it is harvested by cellular respiration
How do we get energy out of glucose?
Covalent bond formed by a condensation reaction between two sugar monomers
Preferential order of utilization
Body's favorite order of what macros to use first for energy
Carbs --> protein --> fat
Macromolecules that are polymers of a few hundred or thousand monosaccharides
Formed by linking monomers in enzyme-mediated condensation (joining by removing water) reactions
What's the most common storage polysaccharide in animals?
Glucose polymer in animals stored in muscle and liver
Where is glycogen stored in humans?
The liver and muscles
Diverse group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water (hydrophobic) but will dissolve in non polar (like dissolves like) solvents
What are the 3 important groups of lipids
What are fats composed of?
Glycerol- a three-carbon alcohol
Fatty acid (carboxyl acid)- composer of a carboxyl group (COOH) head at one end and an attached hydrocarbon chain (tail)
Hydrocarbon chain (C-H)
Hydrophobic and not water soluble
Bond formed between a hydroxyl group and a carboxyl group
Characteristics of fat:
✔️Insoluble to water
✔️variation among fat molecules is the fatty acid composition
✔️fatty acids in a fat may all be the same or some (all) may differ
✔️ vary in length
✔️ vary in number and location of carbon to carbon double bonds
✔️No double bonds between carbons and fatty acid tail
✔️bonded to MAX number of hydrogens
✔️ solid at room temp
✔️most animal fats
✔️one+ double bonds between carbons in fatty acid tail
✔️liquid at room temp
What are 4 useful functions of fats?
✔️energy storage (one gram stores twice as much energy as a gram of polysaccharide
✔️more compact fuel reservoir (store more energy for less weight than in plants)
✔️cushions vital organs (kidney)
✔️insulated against heat loss
Compounds with molecular building blocks of glycerol, 2 fatty acids, one phosphate group, usually an additional small chemical group attached to the phosphate
How do phospholipids differ from fat?
The third carbon of glycerol is joined to a negatively charged phosphate group instead of another fatty acid
How is a cell membrane's phospholipid bilayer set up?
Has two layers of phospholipids. Each have a hydrophilic head polar head and two hydrophobic fatty acid nonpolar tails. The heads are facing outward toward extra|intra cellular areas and tails are facing inward
Lipids which have 4 fused carbon rings with various functional groups attached
Ex: cholesterol is important steroid
Very important steroid
✔️adds stability to cell membrane (adds viscosity (thickness) to membrane)
✔️precursor to many other steroids (sex hormones etc)