Chapter 2- Chemical Basis Of Life Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2- Chemical Basis Of Life Deck (104)
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60

Macromolecule

Large organic (carbon-containing) polymer

61

What are the four classes of macromolecules in living organisms

Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic acid (DNA,RNA, and ATP)

62

Polymerization reactions

Chemical reactions that link 2+ small molecules to form molecules with repeating structural units (making a polymer)

63

Condensation reactions

Mose polymerization reactions in living things !!!!

(Anabolism) Monomers are covalently linked, producing net removal of a water molecule for each covalent linkage

One monomer loses OH and another loses H

Requires energy

64

Hydrolysis

(Catabolism)
A reactions process that breaks (splits) covalent bonds between monomers by the addition of water molecules

Hydrogen fro water bonds with one monomer and remaining OH from water bonds with adjacent monomer

Ex: digestive enzymes catalyze hydrolysis reactions which BREAK APART large food molecules into monomers that can be absorbed into the bloodstream

65

Carbohydrates

Organic (must have carbons and hydrogen to be organic) molecules made of sugars and their polymers

66

Monosaccharides

Simple sugars that are monomers or building block molecules in CARBOHYDRATES

CH2O

Major nutrients for cells ; glucose is most common

67

Where do carbs store energy

In their chemical bonds and it is harvested by cellular respiration

68

How do we get energy out of glucose?

Cellular respiration

69

Glycosidic linkage

Covalent bond formed by a condensation reaction between two sugar monomers

70

Preferential order of utilization

Body's favorite order of what macros to use first for energy
Carbs --> protein --> fat

71

Polysaccharides

Macromolecules that are polymers of a few hundred or thousand monosaccharides

Formed by linking monomers in enzyme-mediated condensation (joining by removing water) reactions

72

What's the most common storage polysaccharide in animals?

Glycogen

Glucose polymer in animals stored in muscle and liver

73

Where is glycogen stored in humans?

The liver and muscles

74

Lipids

Diverse group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water (hydrophobic) but will dissolve in non polar (like dissolves like) solvents

75

What are the 3 important groups of lipids

Fats
Phospholipids
Steroids

76

What are fats composed of?

Glycerol- a three-carbon alcohol
Fatty acid (carboxyl acid)- composer of a carboxyl group (COOH) head at one end and an attached hydrocarbon chain (tail)

77

Affinity

Attraction towards

78

Fats

(Tail)

Hydrocarbon chain (C-H)
Hydrophobic and not water soluble

79

ester linkage

Bond formed between a hydroxyl group and a carboxyl group

80

Characteristics of fat:

✔️Insoluble to water
✔️variation among fat molecules is the fatty acid composition
✔️fatty acids in a fat may all be the same or some (all) may differ
✔️ vary in length
✔️ vary in number and location of carbon to carbon double bonds

81

Saturated fat

✔️No double bonds between carbons and fatty acid tail
✔️bonded to MAX number of hydrogens
✔️ solid at room temp
✔️most animal fats

82

Unsaturated fat

✔️one+ double bonds between carbons in fatty acid tail
✔️liquid at room temp
✔️plant fats

83

What are 4 useful functions of fats?

✔️energy storage (one gram stores twice as much energy as a gram of polysaccharide
✔️more compact fuel reservoir (store more energy for less weight than in plants)
✔️cushions vital organs (kidney)
✔️insulated against heat loss

84

Phospholipids

Compounds with molecular building blocks of glycerol, 2 fatty acids, one phosphate group, usually an additional small chemical group attached to the phosphate

85

How do phospholipids differ from fat?

The third carbon of glycerol is joined to a negatively charged phosphate group instead of another fatty acid

86

How is a cell membrane's phospholipid bilayer set up?

Has two layers of phospholipids. Each have a hydrophilic head polar head and two hydrophobic fatty acid nonpolar tails. The heads are facing outward toward extra|intra cellular areas and tails are facing inward

87

Steroids

Lipids which have 4 fused carbon rings with various functional groups attached

Ex: cholesterol is important steroid

88

Cholesterol

Very important steroid

✔️adds stability to cell membrane (adds viscosity (thickness) to membrane)
✔️precursor to many other steroids (sex hormones etc)

89

Fluid- mosaic

Characteristic of cell membrane to move

Fluid- move all around
Mosaic- all different components