Flashcards in Chapter 2 Test Deck (59)
About how many people are being added to the global population each year?
Where is the most growth occurring?
LDCs like the Middle East, Africa, and South Asia
What countries have more males then females and why? What does it cause to happen?
China, the Middle East, and India.
It's because males are preferred over females in their society and they abort girls. This imbalance causes women to be kidnapped and the economy will collapse because in their society women don't work
When did the global NIR peak and when?
2.2 in 1963
How can we understand how population is distributed?
By looking at concentration and density
How is the number of people in a country usually determined?
What is a cartogram?
It displays the world's population. It depicts the sizes of countries according to population instead of land area
Where does 2/3 of the world's population live?
South Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Europe
Where do most Chinese people live and work?
They live in rural areas and work as farmers
Where do most Koreans and Japanese live?
They live in urban areas and work industrial or service jobs
What countries are in East Asia?
China, Japan, Taiwan, and the Korean Peninsula
What countries are in South Asia?
India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka
Where is the majority of South Asia's population concentrated?
Along the plains of the Indus & Ganges rivers and along India's 2 coastlines
Where do most people in South Asia live and what kinds of jobs do they have?
They live in rural areas and are farmers
What countries are in Europe?
48 countries are in Europe, including Russia
Where do most people in Europe live?
They live in cities
Where are the highest concentrations of people in Europe?
Along major rivers, the coalfields of Germany and Belgium, and big cities like London and Paris
What countries are in Southeast Asia?
Small islands between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. These islands include Indonesia (which is the world's 4th most populous country) and the Island of Java (a very highly concentrated country)
What are some sparsely populated regions? What are they called?
Dry lands, wet lands, cold lands, and high lands. They are called non-ecumene (not populated by permanent settlement)
What is Arithmetic Density? Why isn't it a good measurement?
It's the total number of people divided by the total land area. It isn't a good measurement because some land in a country isn't habitable.
What is Physiological Density? Is it good to have a high number?
It's the number of people divided by the amount of arable land. It is bad to have a high number because that means the land can't support the citizen's needs (ex: food)
What is Agricultural Density? Is it good to have a high number?
It's the total number of farmers per unit of arable land. It is bad to have a high number because that means that the country is undeveloped and doesn't have any machines to help with the work.
What are the components of population growth?
CBR, CDR, and NIR.
How do you calculate the NIR?
CBR-CDR = NIR
What is the world NIR at?
What does the NIR affect?
It affects the doubling time, also known as the time it takes for a population to double while assuming a flat rate of natural increase
What is a TFR? What is the world's TFR?
It's the amount of kids the average women can expect to have during her childbearing years. The global TFR is 2.5
What is unusual about the CDR? Why?
The CDR doesn't follow a familiar pattern, the CDR can actually be lower in developing countries than in developed countries. This is because each country is in its own stage of the epidemiological transition, and has its own causes of death
What the population pyramid? Which ones have a higher TFR?
A population pyramid measures age and gender. The ones with larger bases have higher TFRs and ones with smaller bases have lower TFRs
What is the dependency ratio? What does a large dependency ratio do to a population?
It's the number of people under 15 and over 65 compared to the amount of working aged people. A higher dependency ratio creates a bigger financial burden on the working aged generation
What is the sex ratio? What does the sex ratio look like in developed countries? What about Eastern countries?
It's the number of males per 100 females in a population.
Developed countries have more females then males because women live longer. Eastern countries have more men then women because males are the preferred gender so many females are aborted.
What is the demographic transition? How many stages does it have?
The demographic transition is the process of change in a society's population as it develops.
It has 4 (5?) stages and each country is in one
Why have birth rates declined?
Longer education and healthcare + contraception in countries like Bangladesh
What does Malthus say about overpopulation? When did he say this?
He says that eventually our growth rate will be higher than our food production will be able to keep up with. He said this when England was one of the only countries entering stage 2
What did Malthus say was the only way to prevent overpopulation?
Either moral restraint or war/famine/natural disasters
What do contemporary neo-malthusians say about Malthus's theory?
They say that Malthus was right but he didn't take it far enough, because they believe that other resources will run out too. They say that the transfer of medical technology (but not wealth) between developed and developing countries causes developing countries to have rapid population growth
What do Malthus's critics say about his theories?
They say that resources are expanding as technology increases, and aren't fixed like Malthus said. They also say that more people means more labor/economic growth and ultimately more food. Also, the more people means more brains which means more innovation
What country has a rapidly declining population?
Japan. They have lots of elderly, but not many young people. This is because they discourage immigration due to outside cultures.
How does Japan deal with their population problem?
There's a shortage of workers, so they try to keep the elderly working longer. They also have all women work, but this causes women to have even less children
What describes the possible stage 5?
Negative NIR, more elderly then kids due to women having less kids. They have less kids because of contraceptives, education, and work. It also costs more to raise a family in the city
Describe India's population policy
They have advertised family planning, birth control and abortion. In the 1970's they did a lot of sterilization, but that fell out of favor with the public. Now, they have more education, advertisement, and sterilization of women
Describe China's population policy.
They have a One Child Policy, where families need a permit to have kids. If they want to have more than 1 child, they have to pay a "family planning fee". They have marriage laws preventing young marriages. Now they have free contraceptives, a wider range of family planning options, and the 1 child policy is relaxed.
What are the common causes of death in stage 1?
Parasitic diseases and attacks by animals and other people
What are the common causes of death in stage 2?
Receding pandemics, although the CDR is declining. An example of a pandemic is the Black Plague during the Industrial Revolution. Spread through contaminated sewers in cities. Still persists today in south/Southeast Asia
What are the common causes of death in stage 3?
Degenerative diseases, although there is a moderately declining CDR. Chronic diseases associated with aging such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer become prevalent
What are the common causes of death in stage 4?
Degenerative diseases are delayed due to medical advances, although there is a low but increasing CDR
What are the common causes of death in stage 5(???)?
Infectious diseases thought to be eradicated emerge due to them evolving to resist our medicines. New diseases emerge. Poverty in developing countries causes disease to spread (ex: TB). Swine flue and SARS have emerged recently due to increased contact with other people in other countries.
What's an example of a disease diffusing in stage 5?
AIDS diffused from Africa to America due to increased connections, but treatment also diffused from America to Africa.
Name 2 indicators of health
The IMR and the life expectancy
What can developed countries do to help their citizens that developing countries can't? Name a country that does this.
They help pay for their healthcare treatment and help those physically unable to work. Some countries that do this include Switzerland and Northern Europe in general
Where is the high expenditure of medical expenses reflected?
What do developed counties feel obligated to do?
Maintain their current level of public healthcare assistance
What choice do developed countries often have to make?
Reduce benefits or raise taxes
What was Malthus right (ish) about
The amount of food produced
What caused the industrial revolution? What did it do?
The industrial revolution was caused by improvements in the manufacturing of goods and delivering them to the market. The industrial revolution pushed Europe and America into stage 2 of the DTM
What caused the medical revolution? What did it do?
It was caused by innovations of medical technology. This pushed other developing countries into stage 2, and Europe and America also benefitted from it
Why do families have fewer kids in stage 3?
Because of the decline in infant mortality more of their kids will survive, so they have less kids
What stage did the black plague take place in?