Flashcards in Weak Concepts- For Midterm Deck (62):
The frequency with which something occurs in space
Define a formal (or uniform) region and give examples
An area within which everyone has at least one or more distinctive characteristics in common that are universally recognized. Ex: The US, Canada, Tennessee, etc
Define a functional (nodal) region and give examples
An area organized around a node or focal point. Ex: TV broadcast area, train stations, airport, etc
Define a vernacular (or perceptual) region and give examples
A place people believe exists as a part of their cultural identity that is not universally agreed upon. Ex: The South, the Rust Belt, the Sun Belt, etc
The physical characteristic of a place
The location of a place relative to other places
The extent of a feature's spread over an area
Define a chloropleth map
A map that shows you by county where something is
What is a proportional map
Big and little dots
What's an isoline map?
Define GIS (Global Information System)
A computer system that captures, stores, queries, analyzes, and displays geographic data. It's used to make maps.
Define GPS (Global positioning system)
A system that accurately determines the precise position of something on earth
Define physiological density
The number of people per unit of area suitable for agriculture
The scientific method of transferring locations on Earth's surface to a flat map
Define stimulus diffusion
The spread of an underlying principle even though the characteristic itself apparently fails to diffuse
The relationship between the portion of the Earth being studied and the earth as a whole
If something a map has a large scale, is it more zoomed in or out?
It's more zoomed in
Define agricultural density
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
Define arithmetic density
The total number of people divided by the total land area
What are the pros and cons of the Robinson map?
It's good for everyday use, however it distorts land masses.
What are the pros and cons of the Mercator map?
It's good for navigation, however the landmasses at the poles look larger than they really are
What is Goode's projection map also called and why is it used a lot?
It's also called the "Orange peel map". It's good because there's not much distortion
The scientific study of population characteristics
The portion of earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement
What are the theories of Thomas Malthus? (And when did he make them?)
He argued that the rate of the world's population increase is outrunning the development of food supplies. However, he made these conclusions while England was still in stage 2 of the DTM and growing rapidly
What do Neo-Malthusians believe?
They think that world population growth (today) is outstripping a wide variety of resources, not just food production.
What do Anti-Malthusians believe?
Malthus's critics come from a wide variety of perspectives. However, they all consider Malthus's beliefs unrealistic because Malthus considers our amount of resources to be fixed, not expanding. Larger population = More production of food
Define a guest worker
A term once used for a worker who migrated to developed countries in search of a higher-paying job
Define interregional migration
Permanent migration from one region of the country to another
Define intraregional migration
Permanent migration within one region of a country
What are Ravenstein's Laws of Migration?
A set of geographic theories to explain his observations of human migration that specifically look at the distance migrants move, the reasons they move, and the characteristics of the typical migrant.
What is Zelinsky's Theory of Migration?
A set of migration patterns developed by Wilbur Zelinksy that correlate to the DTM
What are the five parts to Ravenstein's laws of migration?
1. Migration tends to happen more over short distances.
2. Occurs overs a series of stages (step migration) from the countryside, to villages, to small downs, then to cities
3. Every migration has a counterflow (movement to the cities, as well as away from the cities)
4. Urban dwellers are less migratory than rural residents
5. Most migrants are adults – Women are more migratory over short distances and men tend to migrate over long distances while looking for economic opportunity
During stage 1 of the DTM, according to Wilbur Zelinski, what type of migration are they likely to engage in?
High daily or seasonal mobility in search of food
During stage 2 of the DTM, according to Wilbur Zelinski, what type of migration are they likely to engage in?
High international emmigration and interregional migration from rural to urban areas
During stage 3 of the DTM, according to Wilbur Zelinski, what type of migration are they likely to engage in?
High international immigration and intraregional migration from cities to suburbs
During stage 4 of the DTM, according to Wilbur Zelinski, what type of migration are they likely to engage in?
Same as stage three; high international immigration in intraregional migration from cities to suburbs
During stage 5 of the DTM, according to Wilbur Zelinski, what type of migration are they likely to engage in?
If anyone in a stage five country moves it all, it's internally because there's no reason to leave the country with such a good quality of life
A custom is the frequent repetition of an act, to the extent that it becomes a characteristic of the group of people performing the act
Where did English come from and what languages influenced its development?
It originated in The British Isles. The Celts, Germanic tribes, Vikings, and Normans all had their own unique languages and they combined to create English.
What's a negative part of the diffusion of culture?
The fact that it can contribute to placelessness
What's a positive part of the diffusion of culture?
It causes more revenue for the country of origin/hearth
Define Pidgin language
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of the lingua franca; used for communications amongst speakers of two different languages
Defined interfaith conflict
Conflict within one face
Define intrafaith conflict
Conflicts amongst two or more faiths
Why are there so many Baptists in the South (U.S.?)
They came to America from England due to religious persecution, and they chose to settle in the south because of a similar climate. The civil war kept it from diffusing to the North until later.
Where did the majority of the original Presbyterians come from?
The Highlands of Scotland
Where are Presbyterians commonly found today and why?
There are found in the Southern US and West Pennsylvania. This is due to the fact that the original immigrants were from Scotland in Scotland has a similar climate to the Eastern United States, and in addition there is evidence of chain migration
Where did Mormonism originate and why did it diffuse?
Originated in New York and it diffused from Ohio, then to Western Missouri, and to Illinois, and eventually Utah due to religious persecution and missionaries
What is one explanation for why the tensions are lower today than ever before as far as religion goes in Europe?
The growing trend of secularism
What are the three branches of Buddhism?
Mahayana, Theravada, and Vajrayana
What are the 3 major branches of Christianity?
Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Orthodox
What are the two branches of Islam?
Sunni and Shia (Shi'ite)
The break up of a large Multi ethnic state due to ethnic conflict
The legal segregation of races or ethnicities
What is the Jim Crow law?
It basically mean "separate but equal" – It encouraged many African-Americans to flee to the cities in the north looking for work in the 1940s and 50s
What is ethnocentrism?
The belief that one's own ethnicity is better than another ethnicity
What is state sponsored terrorism?
When a state provides terrorists sanctuary/ protection, supplies weapons and/or money, or helps plan and coordinate attacks
What countries does the US consider to be state sponsors of terrorism?
Iran, Sudan, Syria
What is Al Qaeda?
"The base" was formed in the 1980s lead by Osama bin Laden. In 1989 the Soviets withdraw from Afghanistan and set their sights on taking down the US.
When did Bin Laden become angry with the US and why?
After the First Gulf War in 1990 because he was forced out of Africa and then began setting up training camps in Afghanistan