Flashcards in Chapter 6 Quiz Deck (30)
What's the difference between a universalizing and an ethnic religion?
Universalizing religions main goal is conversion, however, ethnic religions don't prioritize conversion. In addition, ethnic religions typically don't have one specific founder and universalizing religions do
Who is the founder of Christianity and what year did he found it?
Jesus of Nazareth in 33 C.E
Who is the founder of Islam and what year did he found it?
Muhammad in 610 C.E
How did Christianity first spread?
By missionaries using a network of Roman roads
What are the 2 major branches of Islam?
Shi'a and Sunni
What is the main difference between Shi'a and Sunni?
Shi'as believe that the person to replace Muhammad after he died should be his direct descendent (he didn't even have one. Sunnis believe that his replacement/new leader of muslims should be someone who is elected
Where did Islam originate and how did it spread?
It originated in the Arabian Peninsula and spread as Muslims began to create an empire in the 600s and 700s
Who is the founder of Buddhism and what year did he found it?
Siddhartha Gautama around 500 B.C
What religion was Siddhartha Gautama originally and why did he begin to question it?
He was originally Hindu but began to question the limitations of the caste system
Why was Buddhism appealing and to whom?
It was an appealing alternative to Hinduism so those who felt confined by the caste system could achieve peace in this world
How many Jews are there worldwide?
What is considered the first recorded monotheistic religion?
Who is considered the father of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam?
How and why did Judaism diffuse?
Judaism diffused rapidly by refugees fleeing religious persecution
What 2 major religions can not be traced by to a single founder?
Hinduism and Judaism
Is Hinduism polytheistic or monotheistic?
It isn't clear; It's one God, but can be seen in many forms
What's the oldest religion in the world?
What does Hindu rituals tend to be tied to?
The environment/ nature
What are the 3 major beliefs of Hinduism?
1. Reincarnation (the soul is reborn in different forms)
2. Dharma (good deeds)
3. Karma (positive or negative force caused by a person's actions)
What 4 factors dictate burial practices?
Climate, topography, customs, and religious beliefs
What do Christians typically do with their dead?
They put emphasis on the church and their cemeteries are considered sacred spaces
What do Jews do with their dead?
No cremation because the body is a temple of God
What do Muslims do with their dead?
They bury them within 24 hours (often with no casket)
What do Jews place on graves when they visit them and why?
They place stones on graves to signify permanence and to show that someone has visited
What do Hindus do with their dead?
Cremation with funeral pyres- they believe this causes purification of the body and because Shiva destroys and renews though fire. They often spread their ashes in the Ganges because the water is said to purify
What do Buddhists do with their dead?
They often favor cremation of the body due to lack of burial space in mountainous of overpopulated regions (buddhism is mostly prevalent in these regions)
What do island cultures do with their dead?
They often have water burials because of the lack of burial space
What is referred to as the "most contested piece of real estate on earth" and why?
The Dome of the Rock, situated on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem because of its significance in Islam, Judaism, and Christianity
What part of the Temple mount is important to Judaism?
The Western Wall of the Jewish Temple