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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Test Deck (85):
1

Define sovereignty

Independence from control over its internal affairs by another state

2

List the 6 largest states by land area in order

Russia, Canada, USA, China, Brazil, Australia

3

How many micro-states are recognized?

About 24, they're mostly islands

4

When was the UN established and why?

It was established in 1945 by the allies to help make peace and travel easier between countries

5

What types of countries joined the UN in 1955?

Mostly countries liberated by Nazi Germany

6

What types of countries joined the UN in the 1960s?

Mostly former African colonies of Britain and France

7

What types of countries joined the UN in the 1990s?

Micro-states and countries formed due to the breakup of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia

8

What are the 5 permanent members of the Security Council?

China, France, Russia, the UK, and the USA

9

What are 2 problems the UN faces?

1. Relies on individual countries for troops
2. Has trouble staying neutral

10

Give examples of a nation-state

Japan, Denmark, Egypt, Iceland, and Finland

11

Define self-determination

The concept that ethnicities have a right to govern themselves, disregard current borders, and claim lost territory

12

Who is a nation defined by?

Only by its people

13

Define a state

An area organized into a internationally recognized political unit and ruled by an established government that has control over all its affairs

14

About how many states/ countries were there around WW2?

Only about 50

15

How many states/countries are there now?

Between 196-Just over 200

16

Why were there so few states during WW2?

Because before the war was over, most territory was controlled by colonial powers, but after the war many new states came into existance

17

What is an example of a non-self-governing state?

The western sahara

18

What are some states that have some, but not all, international recognition?

Palestine, Taiwan, Tibet, the Western Sahara

19

What is a quasi-state?

A territory that is legally tied to another state but isn't entirely independent

20

What's an example of a quasi-state?

Transnistria in Europe. Citizens there are citizens of Russia, Moldova, and Ukraine

21

What country declared independence after the break up of Yugoslavia?

Kosovo

22

What is the smallest state in the world?

The Vatican City

23

Define a micro-state and give an example

A state that's small in land area and/or population. Ex: Naru in the Pacific

24

Define a city-state and give examples

Monaco, Singapore, and Vatican City

25

What is the largest landmass in the world that isn't a sovereign state?

Antartica

26

What does the Antarctic treaty prevent?

It prevents military action, new land claims, and taking advantage of Antartica's mineral resources and fresh water

27

What percent of the world's fresh water supply is in Antartica and what countries want it [the water]?

70%, and India, Mexico, and China want its water due to a booming population + urbanization

28

What is a nation?

A group of people that share a common ethnic bond and identity

29

Define a centripetal force

A force that helps unify a state/ hold a country together and brings people together

30

Define a centrifugal force

A force that tears people away, and often causes competition for recognition by minority ethnic groups

31

What are the two majority ethnic groups in Ukraine?

Ukrainian and Russian

32

What are the Baltic states that formed from the breakup of the Soviet Union?

Lithuania, Estonia, and Latvia

33

What are the European states that formed from the breakup of the Soviet Union?

Belarus, Ukraine, and Moldova

34

What are the Central Asian states that formed from the breakup of the Soviet Union?

Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan

35

Define morphology

The study of the shapes of states

36

Define a compact state and list examples

A smaller, often roundish or square country. Ex: Hungary and Poland

37

Define a proupted state and list examples

Usually a compact state with an extended arm of territory that serves a purpose. Ex: Afghanistan and Namibia. Afghanistan's proruption was designed to create a buffer between the Soviet Union and Pakistan

38

Define an elongated state and list examples

A very long state, typically with a large coastline. Ex: Chile

39

Define a Fragmented state and list examples

States that are broken either by water or other states. Ex: USA, Greece, Angola, Azerbaijan

40

Define a Perforated state and list examples

When are state has a hole or tear in it/ surrounds another state. Ex: South Africa is perforated by Lethoso, San Marino and the Vatican City perforate Italy.

41

What are some advantages and disadvantages to a compact state?

Pros: Capital is often centrally located and has easy access from all parts of the country. Usually relatively easy to defend.
Cons: Has less land for agriculture

42

What are some advantages and disadvantages to a Propted state?

Pros: Often creates a buffer between two other enemy states or gives the country access to resources
Cons: None that we talked about

43

What are some advantages and disadvantages to an Elongated state?

Pros: Huge coastline for shipping and trade
Cons: Can be difficult to defend and govern because it's too spread out, remote areas can be isolated and cause both communication and defense issues.

44

What are some advantages and disadvantages to a Fragmented state?

Pros: Different climates for agriculture and access to different resources off the main land
Cons: National unity, political control, and defense can be difficult

45

What are some advantages and disadvantages to a Perforated state?

Pros: Forces political diplomacy between the two countries
Cons: If the countries are at war then yeah not good

46

What do cartographers do to a boundary by drawing it on a map?

They delimit it

47

Define demarcating a boundry

To mark a boundary using fences, posts, etc

48

Define administrating a boundary

To determine how the boundary will be maintained and how goods and people will cross the boundary

49

What are the two types of boundaries?

Physical (the natural landscape) and Cultural (the cultural landscape)

50

What are the two types of cultural boundaries?

Geometric and Ethnic

51

What is a physical boundary and give examples

A boundary that generally follows an agreed upon feature of the natural landscape such as a mountain, river, etc. Example: Pyrenees mountains between Spain and France

52

What is a cultural boundary?

A boundary drawn by humans that's often based off the current cultural situation

53

Define a geometric boundary and give an example

A straight line drawn on a map. Ex: Western U.S. and Canada

54

Define an antecedent boundary and give an example.

A boundary drawn across an area before it is well populated and before most of the cultural landscape features were put into place. Ex: US and Canada, Western States in the US, parts of Africa.

55

Define a subsequent boundary and give examples

A boundary that's drawn after the development of the cultural landscape. Ex: China and the Korean peninsula, China and Vietnam

56

Define a consequent boundary and give examples

A boundary that coincides with some sort of cultural divide. Ex: Northern Ireland and Ireland, Pakistan and India

57

Define a superimposed boundary and give examples

A forced boundary that ignores the existing cultural landscape and patterns. Ex: Africa after European colonialism, the Middle East

58

Define a relic boundary and give examples

A former boundary line that no longer functions as such is still marked by some landscape feature. Ex: The Great Wall of China, the Berlin Wall

59

When did colonialism end?

At the end of World War II

60

What was the Cold War a result of?

Competition for power, political influence, and territory

61

What is the Mackinder Heartland Theory?

It's a theory established in 1904 that states that whoever controls the heartland (eurasia) can then control the rimland and then the world. Supported the goal of world domination attempted by the Nazis and the USSR

62

Define a shatterbelt and give examples

An area of instability between regions with opposing ideals and political and cultural values. Ex: Eastern Europe during the Cold War- separated communism and democracy. The middle east is also a shatterbelt

63

What is the Rimland Theory?

The theory created in 1942 that's a counterargument to the heartland theory and argues that control over the rimland and costal areas will lead to world dominance

64

Where are most of the remaining colonies?

The Pacific and the Caribbean

65

What are the largest and smallest colonies in the world and who do they belong to?

Puerto Rico is the world's largest colony and belongs to the US. The Pitcairn Islands is the smallest colony and belongs to the UK

66

How many landlocked countries/states are there in the world?

48

67

What is irredentism? Give examples.

The disregard for current borders in an attempt to reclaim lost territory- often because of ties to a specific ethnic affiliation. Ex: ISIS, Crimea

68

What is the median line principle?

The idea that water borders are generally considered to be halfway between the coastlines of 2 different countries.

69

What's another idea instead of the median-line principle?

That borders are 12 miles out to sea from the land border and the EEZ (exclusive economic zone) is 200 miles off the border. The EEZ means the state has exclusive rights to fishing, oil drilling, etc in that area

70

What state claims the most EEZ territory?

The USA

71

What is the area of most controversy over water borders?

East Asia

72

What island is disputed by the Greeks and the Turks?

Cyprus

73

What did the UN set up in Cyprus?

The Green Line

74

Define electoral geography

The geography of political representation and how space is arranged in order to meet political goals

75

Define devolution

When a unitary power/ central government grants some limited powers to a lower level unit (province, etc)

76

Define a unitary government and give examples

One central authority has all the power. Ex: China, France, UK, Spain

77

Define a federal government and give examples

Shared power with one central authority and smaller political units. Ex: Russia, Canada, USA, etc

78

How is devolution of a unitary state different than federalism?

The entire state remains unitary because the devolved powers may be temporary or limited- the central authority is still the one in charge

79

What are some pros and cons of devolution?

Pros: Granting limited powers can lessen civil unrest in multi-ethnic states and granting limited powers can be useful in a large country.
Cons: Can be centrifugal- granting too much power can lead to succession movements. Ex: Scotland, Quebec, and Spain

80

What is gerrymandering?

A form of redistricting when the borders of a voting district are manipulated and redrawn to benefit the party in power- named after Elbridge Gerry

81

When is gerrymandering typically done?

Every 10 years (right after the census) it's common for the party in power to redraw the voting district

82

Define supranationalism

International organizations that seek economic and political cooperation. Decisions made by a multinational community

83

Define terrorism

Using fear and violence to intimidate in order to achieve political or ideological goals

84

What is terrorism often a response to?

Supranationalism- it frustrates them

85

What are the two types of terrorism?

Individuals/ organizations and state sponsored