Flashcards in Chapter 22 - Thyroid Fill in The Blanks Deck (27)
The thyroid straddles the trachea anteriorly, whereas the paired lobes extend on either side bounded laterally by the __________ arteries and __________ veins.
Along the anterior surface of the thyroid gland lie the __________ muscles, including the sternothyroid, omohyoid, sternohyoid, and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.
The parathyroid glands are normally located on the __________ surface of the thyroid gland.
The parathyroid glands are the ___________ organs in the body.
The parathyroid glands produce __________ and monitor the serum calcium feedback mechanism.
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
When the serum calcium level ___________, the parathyroid glands are stimulated to release PTH.
PTH acts on ___________, __________, and intestine to enhance calcium absorption.
Primary hyperparathyroidism is characterized by __________, hypercalciuria, and low serum levels of phosphate.
Primary hyperparathyroidism occurs when increased amounts of PTH are produced by a(n) __________, primary hyperplasia, or, rarely, carcinoma located in the parathyroid gland.
A chronic hypocalcemia caused by renal failure, vitamin D deficiency (rickets), or malabsorption syndromes is __________ hyperparathyroidism.
The thyroid gland is the part of the endocrine system that maintains body ___________, ___________, and ___________ through the synthesis, storage, and secretion of thyroid hormones.
metabolism, growth, and development
These hormones include triiodothyronine (__________), thyroxine (__________), and __________.
T3, T4, and calcitonin
The mechanism for producing thyroid hormones is __________ metabolism.
When the body needs thyroid hormone, it is released into the bloodstream by the action of thyrotropin, or thyroid-stimulating hormone (__________), which is produced by the pituitary gland.
The secretion of TSH is regulated by thyrotropin-releasing factor, which is produced by the __________.
The concentration of calcium in the blood is decreased by __________, which first acts on the bone to inhibit its breakdown.
Low intake of iodine (goiter) in the body may cause either __________, or the inability of the thyroid to produce the proper amount of thyroid hormone, or a problem in the pituitary gland that does not control the thyroid production.
How the thyroid is functioning is evaluated by ___________.
An enlargement of the thyroid gland is a(n) __________, which is often visible on the anterior neck.
One of the most common forms of thyroid disease is __________.
__________ is characterized by these findings: hypermetabolism, diffuse toxic goiter, exophthalmos (inflammatory infiltration of the orbital tissue resulting in proptosis, or bulging of the eyes), and cutaneous manifestations (thickening of the dermis of the pretibial areas and the dorsum of the feet).
A benign thyroid neoplasm characterized by complete fibrous encapsulation is a(n) __________.
The most common of the thyroid malignancies is __________ of the thyroid and is the preponderant cause of thyroid cancer in children.
The normal thyroid gland has a fine __________ echotexture that is more echogenic that the surrounding muscle structure.
A normal lymph node is oval in shape with a(n) __________ texture with a central core echo complex.
The ___________ muscle is posterior and lateral to each thyroid lobe and appears as a hypoechoic triangular structure adjacent to the cervical vertebrae.