Chapter 22 - Thyroid Fill in The Blanks Flashcards Preview

Diagnostic Sonography - Hagen > Chapter 22 - Thyroid Fill in The Blanks > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 22 - Thyroid Fill in The Blanks Deck (27):
1

The thyroid straddles the trachea anteriorly, whereas the paired lobes extend on either side bounded laterally by the __________ arteries and __________ veins.

carotid, jugular

2

Along the anterior surface of the thyroid gland lie the __________ muscles, including the sternothyroid, omohyoid, sternohyoid, and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.

strap

3

The parathyroid glands are normally located on the __________ surface of the thyroid gland.

posterior medial

4

The parathyroid glands are the ___________ organs in the body.

calcium-sensing

5

The parathyroid glands produce __________ and monitor the serum calcium feedback mechanism.

parathyroid hormone (PTH)

6

When the serum calcium level ___________, the parathyroid glands are stimulated to release PTH.

decreases

7

PTH acts on ___________, __________, and intestine to enhance calcium absorption.

bone, kidney

8

Primary hyperparathyroidism is characterized by __________, hypercalciuria, and low serum levels of phosphate.

hypercalcemia

9

Primary hyperparathyroidism occurs when increased amounts of PTH are produced by a(n) __________, primary hyperplasia, or, rarely, carcinoma located in the parathyroid gland.

adenoma

10

A chronic hypocalcemia caused by renal failure, vitamin D deficiency (rickets), or malabsorption syndromes is __________ hyperparathyroidism.

secondary

11

The thyroid gland is the part of the endocrine system that maintains body ___________, ___________, and ___________ through the synthesis, storage, and secretion of thyroid hormones.

metabolism, growth, and development

12

These hormones include triiodothyronine (__________), thyroxine (__________), and __________.

T3, T4, and calcitonin

13

The mechanism for producing thyroid hormones is __________ metabolism.

iodine

14

When the body needs thyroid hormone, it is released into the bloodstream by the action of thyrotropin, or thyroid-stimulating hormone (__________), which is produced by the pituitary gland.

TSH

15

The secretion of TSH is regulated by thyrotropin-releasing factor, which is produced by the __________.

hypothalamus

16

The concentration of calcium in the blood is decreased by __________, which first acts on the bone to inhibit its breakdown.

calcitonin

17

Low intake of iodine (goiter) in the body may cause either __________, or the inability of the thyroid to produce the proper amount of thyroid hormone, or a problem in the pituitary gland that does not control the thyroid production.

hypothyroidism

18

How the thyroid is functioning is evaluated by ___________.

nuclear medicine

19

An enlargement of the thyroid gland is a(n) __________, which is often visible on the anterior neck.

goiter

20

One of the most common forms of thyroid disease is __________.

multinodular goiter

21

__________ is characterized by these findings: hypermetabolism, diffuse toxic goiter, exophthalmos (inflammatory infiltration of the orbital tissue resulting in proptosis, or bulging of the eyes), and cutaneous manifestations (thickening of the dermis of the pretibial areas and the dorsum of the feet).

Graves' disease

22

A benign thyroid neoplasm characterized by complete fibrous encapsulation is a(n) __________.

adenoma

23

The most common of the thyroid malignancies is __________ of the thyroid and is the preponderant cause of thyroid cancer in children.

papillary cancer

24

The normal thyroid gland has a fine __________ echotexture that is more echogenic that the surrounding muscle structure.

homogeneous

25

A normal lymph node is oval in shape with a(n) __________ texture with a central core echo complex.

homogeneous

26

The ___________ muscle is posterior and lateral to each thyroid lobe and appears as a hypoechoic triangular structure adjacent to the cervical vertebrae.

longus colli

27

The metabolic rate is dramatically increased __________; clinical signs include weight loss, increased appetite, high degree of nervous energy, tremor, excessive sweating, heat intolerance, and palpitations, and many patients show signs of exophthalmos (protruding eyes).

hyperthyroidism