Chapter 9 - The Vascular System Flashcards Preview

Diagnostic Sonography - Hagen > Chapter 9 - The Vascular System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 9 - The Vascular System Deck (51):
1

Middle layer of the vascular system; veins have thinner tunica media than arteries

tunica media

2

Outer layer of the vascular system, contains the vasa vasorum

tunica adventitia

3

Inner layer of the vascular system

tunica intima

4

Communication between two blood vessels without any intervening capillary network

anastomosis

5

Minute vessels that connect the arterial and venous systems

capillaries

6

Arises inferior to the celiac axis to supply the proximal half of the colon and the small intestine

superior mesenteric artery (SMA)

7

Vascular structures that carry blood away from the heart

arteries

8

Small branch supplying the caudate and left lobes of the liver

left hepatic artery

9

The abdominal aorta bifurcates at the level of the umbilicus into these, which supply blood to the lower extremities

common iliac arteries

10

Arises from the posterolateral wall of the aorta, travels posterior to the inferior vena cava to supply the kidney

right renal artery

11

Branch of the common hepatic artery that supplies the stomach and duodenum

gastroduodenal artery

12

Largest arterial structure in the body; arises from the left ventricle to supply blood to head, upper and lower extremities, and abdominopelvic cavity

aorta

13

Arises from the anterior aortic wall at the level of the third or fourth lumbar vertebra to supply the left transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum

inferior mesenteric artery

14

Arises from the celiac axis to supply the stomach and lower third of the esophagus

left gastric artery

15

Arises from the celiac axis to supply the spleen, pancreas, stomach, and greater omentum

splenic artery

16

Arises from the celiac trunk to supply the liver

common hepatic artery

17

Supplies the gallbladder via the cystic artery

right hepatic artery

18

Arises from the posterolateral wall of the aorta directly into the hilus of the kidney

left renal artery

19

Supplies the stomach

right gastric artery

20

Drains the spleen; travels horizontally across abdomen (posterior to pancreas) to join the superior mesenteric vein to form the portal vein

splenic vein

21

Three large veins that drain the liver and empty into the inferior vena cava at the level of the diaphagm

hepatic veins

22

Formed by the union of the superior mesenteric vein and splenic vein near the porta hepatis of the liver

portal vein

23

Leaves the renal hilum to enter the lateral wall of the inferior vena cava

right renal vein

24

Collapsible vascular structures that carry blood back to the heart

veins

25

Drains the left third of the colon and upper colon and joins the splenic vein

inferior mesenteric vein

26

Leaves the renal hilum, travels anterior to the aorta and posterior to the superior mesenteric artery to enter the lateral wall of the inferior vena cava

left renal vein

27

Drains the proximal half of the colon and small intestine, travels vertically (anterior to the inferior vena cava) to join the splenic vein to form the portal veins

superior mesenteric vein

28

Largest venous abdominal vessel that conveys blood from the body below the diaphragm to the right atrium of the heart

inferior vena cava

29

Weakening of the arterial wall

cystic medial necrosis

30

Permanent localized dilatation of an artery, with an increase of 1.5 times its normal diameter

aneurysm

31

Thrombosis of the hepatic veins

Budd-Chiari syndrome

32

Disease of the arterial vessels marked by thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity in the arterial walls

arteriosclerosis

33

Circumferential enlargement of a vessel with tapering at both ends

Fusiform aneurysm

34

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

TIPS

35

Localized dilatation of the vessel

saccular aneurysm

36

Condition in which the aortic wall become irregular from plaque formation

atherosclerosis

37

Periportal collateral channels in patients with chronic portal vein obstruction

cavernous transformation of the portal vein

38

Tear in the intima or media of the abdominal aorta

dissecting aneurysm

39

Communication between an artery and a vein

arteriovenous fistula

40

Most commonly results from intrinsic liver disease; however, also results from obstruction of the portal vein, hepatic veins, inferior vena cava, or prolonged congestive heart failure; may cause flow reversal to the liver, thrombosis of the portal system, or cavernous transformation of the portal vein

portal venous hypertension

41

Pulsatile hematoma that results from leakage of blood into soft tissue abutting the punctured artery with fibrous encapsulation and failure of the vessel wall to heal

pseudoaneurysm

42

Hereditary disorder of connective tissue, bones, muscles, ligaments, and skeletal structures

Marfan syndrome

43

Permanent dilation of an artery that forms when tensile strength of the arterial wall decreases

true aneurysm

44

Vessels that have little or reversed flow in diastole and supply organs that do not need a constant blood supply (i.e., external carotid artery and brachial arteries)

resistive

45

Flow toward the liver

hepatopetal

46

Vessels that have high diastolic component and supply organs that need constant perfusion (i.e., internal carotid artery, hepatic artery, and renal artery)

nonresistive

47

peak systole minus peak diastole divided by peak systole

resistive index

48

Increased turbulence is seen within the spectral tracing that indicates flow disturbance

spectral broadening

49

Flow away from the liver

hepatofugal

50

Sonographer selects the exact site to record Doppler signals and sets the sample volume (gate) at this site

Doppler sample volume

51

Tiny arteries and veins that supply the walls of blood vessels

vasa vasorum