Chapter 23 Study guide Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 23 Study guide Deck (39):
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Respiratory system functions


blood gas exchange with air

vocalization

sense of smell

regulates blood pH

psi gradients that aid in air flow of lymph and blood expelling abdominal gases

produces a hormone that regulates blood psi

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respiratory system principle organs


nose

pharynx

larynx

trachea

bronchi

lungs

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conducting division


serves only for airflow

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respiratory division


serves as the gas exchange protion

respiratory bronchioles

alveoli

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upper tract


organs of the head and neck

from the nose to the larynx

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lower tract


organs of the thorax

trachea

bronchi

lungs

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O2 & CO2

cellular respiration


O2 is reguired to produce ATP (energy) and the waste product is CO2

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 upper tract airflow


nose

nasal caivty

nasopharynx

oropharynx

laryngopharynx

larynx

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Nose


only external visible part of the system

air enters through external nostrils (nares)

interior nasal cavity divided by nasal septum (vomer, ethmoid and cartilage)

 

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Anatomy of nasal cavity


olfactory receptors are located on the superior surface

lined with respiratory mucosa to moisten air and trap foreign particles

lateral walls have projections called conchae to increase surface area and air turbulence in nasal cavity

separated from oral cavity by the palate

 anterior hard palate-bone, posterior soft palate-muscle

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Paranasal SInuses


air filled cavities with bones surrounding the nasal cavity

located in skull

 

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sinuses function


lighten the skull

resonance chambers for speech

produce mucus that drains into the nasal cavity

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Pharynx (throat)


muscular passage from nasal cavity to larynx

three regions

Nasopharynx

Oropharynx

Laryngopharynx

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Nasopharynx


superior region behind the nasal cavity

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Oropharynx


middle region behind the oral cavity

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Laryngopharynx


inferior region attached to the larynx

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Oropharynx and Laryngopharynx


common passagways for food and air

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Larynx


formed by 8 rigid hyaline cartilages and a flap of elastic cartilage (epiglottis)

Plays role in speech "voice box"

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Epiglottis


protects the superior opening of larynx

routes food to the esophogus and air toward the treachea

when swallowing it rises and forms a lid over the opening of the larynx

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Voice box


true vocal cords:

vocal folds, lower folds, vibrate with expelled air to create sound (vocalization)

false vocal cords:

vestibular folds, upper cords

 

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lower tract airflow

treachea

bronchial tree

lungs

 

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Treachea (windpipe)


4" tube that connects larynx with bronchi

walls are reinforced with C-shaped hyaline cartilage

lined with psuedo stratified cilinated columnar epithelium

cilia beat continuously toward pharynx, remove dust and other debris from lungs

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Bronchial tree


Primary Bronchi

Secondary Bronchi

Tertiary bronchi

Bronchioles

Terminal bronchioles

Respiratory bronchioles

Alveolar ducts

Alveolar sacs

Alveoi

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Alveoi


microscopic air sacs

simple squamous epithelium

permits rapid gas exchange

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Lungs


soft spongy cone shaped organs

Apex near clavicle (superior portion)

base rests on diaphragm (inferior portion)

divided into lobes by fissures

Left Lung 2 lobes

Right lung 3 lobes

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Respiratory Membrane


pulmonary capillaries cover external surfaces of alveoli

O2 and CO2 must cross when moving between alveoli and blood in pulmonary capillaries

three layers:

simple squamous epithelium (alveolar wall)

fused basement membrane

capillary epithelium

Air on one side, blood on the other

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pleurae structure/function


visceral pleura: serous membrane covering lung

parietal pluera lining the inside of rib cage

reduce friction during breathing, contribute to pressure gradient that moves air in and out of lungs

help compartmentalize the thoracic cavity

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muscles involved in lung ventilation


diaphragm

internal intercostals

external intercostals

neck, thoracic and abdominal muscles contribute to deep breathing

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diaphragm function


contracts to inhale

relaxes to exhale

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external intercostals


elevate ribs during quiet inspiration

relax during expiration

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respiratory center in brainstem


medulla oblongata

pons

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medulla oblongata role


ventral respiratory group

dorsal respiratory group

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ventral respiratory group

primary pacemaker of respiratory rhythm

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dorsal respiratory group


integrating center

receives input from pons, chemoreceptors in medulla and arteries, stretch and irritant receptors in lungs

acts on VRG to mudulate rhythm

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Pons role in respiration


pontine respiratory group

receives input from higher brain centers and issues output to VRG and DRG

modifies in relation to sleep, emotional excitement, speech and other conditions

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chemorecptors


central

peripheral

monitor pH of CSF

pH, O2 and CO2 levels in blood

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central chemoreceptors


in brainstem

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peripheral chemoreceptors


in aorta and carotid arteries